Having identified some common properties of cognitive behavior that Soar must support, we should be able to motivate the specific structures and mechanisms of the architecture by tying them back to these properties. Keep in mind our equation: BEHAVIOR = ARCHITECTURE + CONTENT It’s clear that if we want to see how the architecture contributes to behavior then we need to explore the architecture in terms of some particular content. For example, describing how Soar supports the underlying characteristic of being goal-oriented won’t by itself produce behavior; we have to be goal-oriented about something. Let’s consider a simple scenario from baseball:2Joe Rookie is a hypothetical pitcher with the Pittsburgh Pirates, about to throw the first pitch of his major league career. He chooses to throw a curve ball. The batter, Sam Pro, hits the ball, but Joe is able to catch it after it bounces once between home plate and the pitching mound. Then, he quickly turns and throws the batter out at first base. Figure 2 shows the participants in our scenario in their usual locations and roles, and the path of the ball from Joe’s pitch to the out at first. Typical rhetoric about baseball players aside, it is clear that Joe displays many of the characteristics of intelligent behavior in our simple scenario. In particular, he: 1. Behaves in a goal-oriented manner. Joe’s overriding goal is to win the game. In service of that goal, Joe adopts a number of subgoals — for example, getting the batter out, striking the batter out with a curve ball, and when that fails, throwing the batter out at first. 2. Operates in a rich, complex, detailed environment. As Figure 2 shows, there are many relevant aspects of Joe’s environment he must remain aware of throughout the scenario: the positions and movement of the batter and the other members of his team, the number of balls and strikes, the sound of the bat striking the ball, the angle his body makes with the first baseman as he turns to throw, etc. 3. Uses a large amount of knowledge. In deciding on his pitch, Joe probably draws on a wealth of statistics about his own team, his own pitching record, and Sam Pro’s batting record. We discuss Joe’s knowledge in more detail below. 4. Behaves flexibly as a function of the environment. In choosing his pitch, Joe responds to his own perceptions of the environment: Is it windy? Is the batter left- or right-handed? etc. Although not included in our scenario, he may also have to consider the catcher’s suggestions. When the ball is hit, Joe must show flexibility again, changing his subgoal to respond to the new situation. 5. Uses symbols and abstractions. Since Joe has never played this particular game (or even in this league) before, he can draw on his previous experience only by abstracting away from this day and place.