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Most common sti in the us caused by chlamydia

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Most commonSTI in the U.SCaused byChlamydia trachomatisC trachomatisis an intracellular gram-negative bacterium thatcannot grow outside a living cell; it needs the metabolism of thehostto reproduceIncubation period is between 7 and 21 daysTransmitted during vaginal, anal, or oral sexMost common site of infection for women is cervix, for men isthe urethraCan be transmitted during childbirth, from mother to child; maycause conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, and pneumoniaCauses a superficial mucosal infection that can become moreinvasive (like gonorrhea); can produce permanent scarring.Risk Factors:age <25, low socioeconomic status; multiple sexpartners; history of STIs; persons who frequently have sex with newpartners; males having sex with malesChlamydia: Clinical ManifestationsKnown as the “silent disease”; sx are often absent or minor; associatedwith gonococcal disease, making differentiation difficult; both treatedconcurrently.Men:Urethral discharge (clear or cloudy)DysuriaProctitis (rectal discharge and pain during defecation)Meatitis- inflammation of the urinary meatusWomen:Cervicitis abnormalities (friable, tender, inflamed)Abnormal vaginal bleedingDysuriaDyspareunia- pain with intercourseLower abdominal painVaginal discharge (clear or cloudy)
Proctitis or rectal dischargeChlamydiaComplications:Develop from poorly managed, inaccurately diagnosed, orundiagnosed chlamydial infections; infection often is not diagnoseduntil complications appear.Men: epididymitis-inflammation of the epididymis (unilateralscrotal pain, swelling, tenderness, and fever); can result ininfertilityWomen: PID (infection in uterus and fallopian tubes) can lead tochronic pelvic pain, infertility, tubal abscesses, ectopicpregnancyDiagnosis:NAAT testing using a swab specimen from vagina, cervix, penis,urethra, rectum or other involved orifice; urine sample may be usedShould be tested for gonorrhea as wellChlamydiaMedical Management:Regular screening in high-risk populations is recommended; anyonepositive and treated should be retested in 3 months.Azithromycin (Zithromax) po in one dose or doxycycline(Vibramycin) po 2x daily for 7 daysInstruction on abstinence for 7 days after completing treatmentTreatment of all sexual partnersNursing: Educate on prevention, manifestations, transmission of STIs,reducing the number of partners, barrier methods; importance of takingentire prescribed therapy; call provider if worsening pain and/or vaginaldischarge; importance of getting retested in 3 monthsSyphilisEpidemiology:According to the World Health Organization (WHO) more than 12millionpersons are estimated to be infected annuallySexually transmitted bacterial infection; can cause serious long-termcomplications; can affect every organ of the bodyClassified in 4 stages: primary, secondary, latent, and tertiaryPopulations most at risk: persons age 25-29 and homosexual men

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