Station 3 the oligocene early anthropoids 2 pts the

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Station 3: The Oligocene – Early Anthropoids (2 pts.)The second half of the Eocene and beginning of the Oligocene epochs, between ~43-33 mya, ismarked by a great deal of geologic and climatic change. During this time the first anthropoids (monkeys and apes) appear in the fossil record, and seem to have quickly diversified into platyrrhines and catarrhines by around 40 mya. This early anthropoid diversification is well-documented in the Fayum Depression of Egypt.Examine the dental casts of Aegyptopithecusand Parapithecus. Compare them with the modern squirrel monkey (platyrrhine) and baboon (catarrhine) skulls in order to answer the following questions:Squirrel Monkey: Baboon: 1.From the fossil evidence, is Aegyptopithecusa platyrrhine or a catarrhine? List one synapomorphy that supports your answer.
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2.Is the dental formula of Parapithecusapomorphic (derived) or plesiomorphic (primitive)? What is the relevance for anthropoid origins of finding an anthropoid with this dental formula in Egypt? (Hint:think about where anthropoids with this dental formula live today.)
3.Based on your answers to the previous two questions, which of these fossil anthropoids is most likely to be found earlier in the fossil record? Explain your rationale.
Station 4: The Miocene I – Early Fossil Apes, Proconsul(3.5 pts.)The fossil record suggests that hominoids and cercopithecoids diverged by the Late Oligocene (at least 25 mya), however the record for both groups is very poor until the Miocene. Among early ape taxa, none is better represented or more iconic than the genus Proconsul, found throughout the volcanic rift valleys of Kenya and Uganda. Use the macaque, chimpanzee and Proconsulmaterials along with the handouts at this station to answer the questions below.Chimpanzee: 4
Macaque:Proconsul:5

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