Progress is gauged instead by recordingvelocity, which essentially is the rate that a projectcompletes features.Self-Check 1.3.1.True or False: A big difference between Spiral and Agile development is buildingprototypes and interacting with customers during the process.False: Both build working but incomplete prototypes that the customer helps evaluate. The differenceis that customers are involved every two weeks in Agile versus up to two years in with Spiral.ELABORATION:Versions of AgileThere is not just a single Agile lifecycle. We are followingExtreme Programming(XP), which includes one- to two-weekiterations, behavior driven design (see Chapter 7), test-driven development (see Chapter 8), and pair programming (see Section10.2). Another popular version isScrum(see Section 10.1), where self-organizing teams use two- to four-week iterations calledsprints, and then regroup to plan the next sprint. A key feature is daily standup meetings to identify and overcome obstacles. Whilethere are multiple roles in the scrum team, the norm is to rotate the roles over time. TheKanbanapproach is derived from Toyota’sjust-in-time manufacturing process, which in this case treats software development as a pipeline. Here the team members have fixedroles, and the goal is to balance the number of team members so that there are no bottlenecks with tasks stacking up waiting forprocessing. One common feature is a wall of cards that to illustrate the state of all tasks in the pipeline. There are also hybridlifecycles that try to combine the best of two worlds. For example,ScrumBanuses the daily meetings and sprints of Scrum butreplaces the planning phase with the more dynamic pipeline control of the wall of cards from Kanban.ELABORATION:Reforming Acquisition RegulationsLong before the ACA website, there were calls to reform software acquisition, as in this US National Academies study of theDepartment of Defense (DOD):“The DOD is hampered by a culture and acquisition-related practices that favor large programs, high-level oversight, and a verydeliberate, serial approach to development and testing (the waterfall model). Programs that are expected to deliver complete, nearlyperfect solutions and that take years to develop are the norm in the DOD...These approaches run counter to Agile acquisitionpractices in which the product is the primary focus, end users are engaged early and often, the oversight of incremental productdevelopment is delegated to the lowest practical level, and the program management team has the flexibility to adjust the content ofthe increments in order to meet delivery schedules...Agile approaches have allowed their adopters to outstrip established industrialgiants that were beset with ponderous, process-bound, industrial-age management structures. Agile approaches have succeededbecause their adopters recognized the issues that contribute to risks in an IT program and changed their management structures andprocesses to mitigate the risks.”(National Research Council2010)
Even President Obama belatedly recognized the difficulties of software acquisition. On November 14, 2013, he said in a speech:
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