society - Crafting idea of Filipino & Fil. nation - “El Amor Patrio” (article) (love for Fatherland) - Love for country - What is nation? - What is love? - Written in Spain; published in Diariong Tagalog owned by Basilio Teodoro; a fellow writer = Marcelo H. Del Pilar (1889 dumating sa Spain = decline of propaganda) - “Pais” = nation; longing for Philippines; “we exiles in a foreign land will dedicate our first words to our country” - “Amor” = love her; “it is our duty to tread the hard but peaceful and productive paths of science”; via studying; Fil. students in Europe = make most of European education to give back to Ph. - (Noli Me Tangere) not just ills of Spaniards; problems of Ph. society = gambling, superstitious beliefs, despotism of friars - Through education - Saturnina pawned wedding ring to finance Jose (?) - Daily life: can’t eat; only 1 set of coat; hope to have free meal if who talks w/ him will give him food; feast w/ Alejandrino = cook noodles → naging panis ● La Solidaridad (1989) ● Graciano Lopez Jaena - orator, writer, prominent indio; Rizal fought w/ him; 1st editor of La Solidaridad; 1st leader of Propaganda Movement; engage in Spanish politics; tayo 1st Fil. lodge = Solidaridad Lodge ● Del Pilar ○ “Dasalan at Tocsohan” (criticism of friars) ■ Amain = friars ■ Parody ■ Aba ginoong barya = pera napupunta sa friars; goal in Ph. = get wealthy ■ Deretsos = law ■ Lead anti-friars = to frailocracy = why Ph. was backward; esp. In context of Jaena; for Rizal, not just because of friars (band-aid sol’n), but also Filos. ■ “Frailocracy” ● Friar = feudal lord; can control gov’t. General = religious orders/indolencia ● Whipped publicly if commands not executed (Crispin killed by head sacristan & Basilio for robbery)
● Filibustero = criticize friars; technically enemy of state/gov’t.; conflate enemy of church & gov’t. = wala namang separation III. Journalism in the Filipino Community ● Promotion of the interest of the colony 1. Revista del Circulo Hispano-Filipino = newspaper/mouthpiece; ask colonial gov’t. To have economic & political reforms → successful; promote interest of colony ● Circulo Hispano-Filipino = peninsulares + mestizos ○ Spaniards ○ Mestizos/Principalia (Clase Media) ■ Extend to criticizing colonial gov’t. → disagreements (Spaniards feared persecution despite free?? In Spain) → Spaniards withdrew support → money came from Spaniards → principalia can’t afford to maintain publishing ● 1890s (Maura Law = economic/political) ● Dissolved ● Moderate nature = only for reforms; nothing beyond that 2. Los Dos Mundos (The Two Worlds) ● Most are mestizos ● Filipino extended to Indio ● Defence of the Indio ● (From mestizos) Growing anti-friar sentiment ○ Against friars in Ph. = accumulate wealth kahit hindi dapat ○ Bg of mestizos = grievance of inquilino families ● (Catholic) unthinkable to attack priest who taught you the religion = medyo off to some, but under leadership of Jaena, continue criticizing friars IV. Luna and Felix Resureccion Hidalgo ● Luna = art & fencing studio; richest Filipinos in Spain ●
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- Spring '00