Introduction to Static Var Compensator.pdf

However using shunt capacitor substations for voltage

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However, using shunt-capacitor substations for voltage compensation of long ac transmission lines has some drawbacks. The primary drawback is that it can be difficult to coordinate operation at all substations along the line to achieve proper voltage compensation. This is because finding the correct combination of capacitive reactance values necessary to compensate the voltage all along a long ac transmission line is often laborious and relatively lengthy. The longer the time it takes to achieve proper voltage compensation at each segment of the ac transmission line, the more voltage fluctuations are created across the line and, more importantly, at the receiver end of the line. In actual ac power networks, voltage fluctuations at the receiver end of the line must be kept to a minimum, as many electrical devices are quite sensitive to voltage variations. The above drawback is further accentuated in actual ac power networks by the fact that the load at the receiver end of an ac transmission line generally varies constantly. Tight control of shunt capacitor switching at the various substations is thus required to minimize the magnitude and duration of the voltage fluctuations occurring at the receiver end of the line after any load change. Nevertheless, even with tight control of capacitor switching at the various substations, perfect compensation of the voltage across the line is rarely achieved. This is because the selection of shunt capacitors available at each substation is generally limited. Therefore, it is not always possible to set the reactance of each shunt capacitor to the exact value required to maintain the receiver voltage at the nominal value under any load condition. The drawbacks listed above illustrate the fact that voltage compensation over a long ac transmission line using shunt capacitors in several substations distributed along the line, although effective, has some minor shortcomings. These shortcomings generally limit the level of stability of operation of the ac transmission line that can be achieved. Because of this, it is sometimes necessary to use other means than shunt-capacitor substations to compensate the voltage all along long ac transmission lines. ܧ ீ௘௡. ܺ ܧ ௅௢௔ௗ Sender end Receiver end ܧ
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Introduction – Static Var Compensator (SVC) Discussion of Fundamentals Static Var Compensator (SVC) 3 Figure 3. Bank of shunt capacitors used to compensate the voltage at substations installed along an ac transmission line. A number of different systems have been developed to diminish or eliminate the drawbacks of using shunt capacitor substations for voltage compensation of ac transmission lines. These systems are part of the flexible ac transmission systems (commonly abbreviated to FACTS) device family. When used in ac power networks, FACTS technologies serve the purpose of increasing the stability, controllability, and power transmission capacity of the network. Because of this, FACTS technologies are a key element in the elaboration of a smart grid (i.e., a grid that is more reliable, efficient, and responsive than conventional
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