What chemical and temperature changes occur as

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9. What chemical and temperature changes occur as Kilauea eruption progresses and why do they occur? (page 101, para 1) Lava temperatures near the vents increased as the eruption progressed- the magnesium content of the basalt increased as well from 6 – 7.5%. These changes are interpreted to mean that some of the magma erupting in the early episodes has been stored in the rift zone before eruption, cooling and precipitateng olivine. 10. What are the physical characteristics of an a'a lava flow? (page 102, para 1) A’a flows are flows with rough surfaces of broken lava blocks 11. Why were the early eruptions at the Puu Oo vent episodic and geyser like? (page 102, para 2) Two factors seem to have been involved even though the reason isn’t clear. The first was some sort of off/on valve in the conduit between the summit magma reservoir and the vent- the second factor was the gas content of the magma 12. What are the gases dissolved in magma, what are their percentage weight, what happens to the gases at high lava temperatures and low surface pressures, and what physical rock feature do they create? (page 102, para 4) The gases dissolved in magma are mostly water, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. They amount to less than 1% by weight of the magma, however at high temps and low surface pressures, these gases boil out of the magma and the expanded volume of the gas is many times the volume of the molten lava, driving the high lava fountains.. The high lava fountains produced large amounts of pumice and Pele’s hair. 13. What is pumice and how is it made? (page 102, para 5) Pumice is a quickly cooled volcanic rock puffed up by the expanding volcanic gases in time bubble holes. (solidified lava foam) 14. What is "Pele's hair"? (page 102, para 5) Pele’s hair is fine strands of volcanic glass that spins off from molten drops of lava whirling in the turbulent lava fountains. 15. What are cinders or scoria? (page 102, para 5 to page 103) Cinders or scoria are heavier lumps of solidified lava 16. What is Pahoehoe? (page 103, para 3) Pahoehoe are smooth surface lava flows 17. What is vog? (page 104, para 6) Vog is a haze of volcanic fume that has plagued parts of the Big Island since the lava began entering the ocean in late 1986
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  • Fall '08
  • Campbell-mccrea,M
  • Volcanology, Volcano, Kīlauea

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