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Photo credit: Amy Myrdal Miller
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Professor and Chair, Food Science and Human Nutrition Assistant Dean, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Iowa State University Ruth S. MacDonald, PhD, RD
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Disclosures American Society Nutrition, Member IFT, Professional Member GMO Answers Expert (volunteer) Center for Food Integrity content provider (volunteer)
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ROUNDUP® READY RoundUp® is glyphosate Inhibits shikimate pathway – plant specific enzymes Resistance gene inserted using Agrobacterium tumefaciens process Allows plant to survive exposure to glyphosate Herbicide tolerant BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS (Bt) Bt is a naturally occurring pesticide Bt toxin approved as natural pesticide since 1960s – approved for use under organic standard Bt gene inserted into plant Plant produces Bt pro-toxin that kills corn borer insect Pest resistant Two examples of GMO crops 13-15
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Corn Soybean Canola Sugar beets Papaya Squash Currently in the food supply Approved – coming soon Food Sources of GMO 16,17
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“70-80% of processed foods have GMO” Corn Sweeteners (HFCS) Corn starch Corn oil Animal feed Soybean Soy flour - proteins Soy oil Animal feed Canola Canola oil Sugar beets Sugar Alfalfa Animal feed Mainly contributed by food ingredients Processed Foods 18
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Purified lipids and carbohydrates have no DNA or proteins therefore GMO products are not different from non- GMO products GMO grains fed to animals do not change the composition of meat, milk or eggs Processing of food ingredients 19-21
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In the 1992 policy, FDA also addresses the labeling of foods derived from new plant varieties, including plants developed by bioengineering. The 1992 policy does not establish special labeling requirements for bioengineered foods as a class of foods. The policy states that FDA has no basis for concluding that bioengineered foods differ from other foods in any meaningful or uniform way, or that, as a class, foods developed by the new techniques present any different or greater safety concern than foods developed by traditional plant breeding FDA Policy 22
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Safety assessments begin with concept of product No variety is released without substantial safety evidence Research on safety Nutrient and chemistry same as non-GMO No inadvertent compounds – no allergens Transfer and/or breakdown of trait Environmental safety Independent researchers Animal studies Environmental studies Nicolia, A. et al. Critical Reviews Biotechnology 34(1):77-88, 2014. Panchin, AY et al. Critical Reviews Biotechnology 37(2):213-217, 2017. Goldstein, DA. Journal Medical Toxicology 10(2):194-201, 2014. USDA: https:// e?navid=AGRICULTURE&contentid=Biotec hnologyFAQs.xml Safety Testing 1,23-25
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1. FDA considers technology equivalent to conventional plant breeding 2. Study of 100 billion animals fed conventional compared to GMO feed for 25 years found no health risks (Van Eenennaam and Young, J. Animal Science 92(10):4255-78, 2014) 3.
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