Connective tissue extracellular matrix 2 major

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connective tissue extracellular matrix2 major components:ground substance, fibers.Each type of connective tissue has unique properties, based on theextracellular matrix:Ground Substancethe component of connective tissue between cells and fibers.May be fluid, semifluid, gelatinous, or calcified.Functionssupports cells, binds cells, stores water, provides a medium forexchange of substances between blood and cells.Plays active role in how tissues develop, migrate,proliferate, and change shape, and in tissue’s metabolic functionContains water, assortment of large organic molecules (manycomplex combo’s of polysaccharides and proteins.Polysaccharides include: hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate,dermatan sulfate, keratin sulfate.Collectively known as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)GAGs (except hyaluronic acid) are associated with proteins calledproteoglycans.
Chapter 418Proteoglycans form a core protein, GAGs project from the proteinlike bristles of a brush.GAGs trap water, making ground substance more jellylike.Hyaluronic acidviscous slippery substance that binds cells together, lubricatesjoints, helps maintain shape of eyeballs.Hyaluronidaseenzyme produced by WBCs, sperm cells, and some bacteria.Breaks apart hyaluronic acid, making ground substance moreliquid.Allows faster movement, penetration of oocyte, rapid spread ofbacteria in connective tissue.Chondroitin sulfateprovides support and adhesiveness in cartilage, bone, skin, andblood vessels.Dermatan sulfatecontained in skin, tendons, blood vessels and heart valvesKeratan sulfatebone, cartilage, cornea of the eyeAdhesion proteinsalso present in ground substance’Function:link components of the ground substance to one another and tothe surface of cells.FibronectinMain adhesion protein; binds to both collagen fibers and groundsubstance, linking together.Also attaches cells to ground substance.
Chapter 419Fibers3 types of fibers embedded in extracellular matrix between cells.Function:strengthen and support connective tissuesCollagen FiberVery strong.Resist pulling forces (tension) but not stiff, allowing flexibility.Properties vary from tissue to tissue.Ex. Collagen fibers in cartilage surrounded by more water thanin bone, giving cartilage a cushioning effect.Often occur in parallel bundles (dense regular connective tissue)Bundle arrangement adds great tensile strength to tissue.Chemical arrangement: consist of the protein collagen, mostabundant protein in body (25%)Collagen fibers found in most types of connective tissue, especiallybone, cartilage, tendons, and ligamentsElastic FiberSmaller in diameter than collagen fibers.Branch and join to form a fibrous network within a connective tissueConsists of protein elastin surrounded by glycoprotein fibrillin,which adds strength and stabilityUnique molecular structure: can stretch up to 150% of relaxed statewithout breaking.

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Term
Summer
Professor
Athabasca
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