I the ground state configuration is the lowest energy

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I The ground state configuration is the lowest-energy configuration.
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Rules for determining the ground state configuration (Aufbau rules) 1. An orbital can hold exactly one electron with each value of m s (Pauli principle) 2. Electrons are added to the lowest energy orbital available. 3. Electrons are spread over degenerate orbitals when possible. 4. Maximize the number of parallel spins when possible (Hund’s rule). 5. Exceptions: ( n - 1)d 5 n s 1 configurations are generally lower in energy than ( n - 1)d 4 n s 2 configurations. ( n - 1)d 10 n s 1 configurations are generally lower in energy than ( n - 1)d 9 n s 2 configurations. 6. There are other exceptions (not to be learned), particularly in the transition metals (after the first row), lanthanides and actinides.
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Orbital energy diagrams I Not usually drawn to scale I Electrons represented by up or down arrows (representing the two possible values of m s ) Example: Ground-state electronic configuration of lithium: 1s 2s Example: Ground-state electronic configuration of boron: 2p 1s 2s
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Orbital box diagrams I Compact version of orbital energy diagram with each orbital represented as a box arranged along a line Example:
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