Researchers use to assess implicit attitudes is a

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researchers use to assess implicit attitudes is a reaction time test called the Implicit Association Test. The IAT measures how quickly a person associates concepts or objects with positive or negative words. Another way to assess implicit attitudes is to observe behavior. DIF: Moderate OBJ: 11.2b MSC: Understanding NOT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 4, Communication 6. a. Explain two ways we develop attitudes. b. For each method, give a specific example of how this has worked in your own life. ANS: Suggested answer: There are three ways we develop attitudes: mere exposure, conditioning, and social exposure. Mere exposure: Typically, the more we are exposed to something, the more we tend to like it. Greater exposure to the item, and therefore greater familiarity with it, caused people to have more-positive attitudes about the item. Examples include liking food, music, or another consumer item over time. Conditioning: Because our associations between things and their meanings can change, our attitudes can be conditioned. Advertisers often use classical conditioning to create positive attitudes about a product. When we see a celebrity we are attracted to and paired with a product that we have neutral feelings about, we tend to develop more-positive attitudes about the product. After this conditioning, the formerly neutral stimulus alone triggers the same positive attitude response as the positively viewed object. Operant conditioning also shapes attitudes: If you are rewarded with good grades each time you study, you will develop a more positive attitude toward studying. Social exposure: Attitudes also are shaped through socialization. Caregivers, peers, teachers, religious leaders, politicians, and media figures guide our attitudes about many things. For example, teenagers’ attitudes about clothing styles and music, behaviors such as smoking and drinking alcohol, and the latest celebrities are heavily influenced by their peers’ beliefs. DIF: Moderate OBJ: 11.2b MSC: Applying NOT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 4, Communication 7. a. Explain what cognitive dissonance is. b. Why are we motivated to reduce cognitive dissonance? c. Describe one way cognitive dissonance can be reduced. ANS: Suggested answer: A. Cognitive dissonance is an uncomfortable mental state due to a contradiction between two attitudes or between an attitude and a behavior. B. A basic assumption of cognitive dissonance theory is that dissonance causes anxiety and tension. Anxiety and tension cause displeasure. Displeasure motivates people to reduce dissonance. C. People may reduce dissonance by changing their attitudes or behaviors. DIF: Difficult OBJ: 11.2c MSC: Understanding
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NOT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 4, Communication 8. a. Describe the central route of persuasion.
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