fully contained in a single state, even if the latter face explicit discrimination and persecution in their state. What then is the connection between ethnic group and nation? It is as complex and variable as that between nation and state: some ethnic groups are nations, some are not. Conceivably, some nations are ethnic groups, some are not. For instance, if the U.S. is to be considered a nation in any way, it must be as a non-ethnic or multi-ethnic one. An even better example is the "Arab nation" or the "Islamic nation," two forms of nationhood or ideologies of nation which formulate trans-state identity but on a basis other than "ethnicity" and which, to be precise, reject ethnicity or "cultural/national" divisions within the broadly-conceived nation. Furthermore, I proposed earlier that a nation is a mobilized and institutionalized ethnic group, but this is not completely accurate or sufficient. First, as I just argued, not all nations are or start out as ethnic groups, although they may come to be draped in the ethnic rubric and discourse (for example, Islamic or Arab nationhood might and has at times come to be construed and defended as an "ethnic identity") or attacked on that same basis, as in the case of Bosnia. Second, the mobilization and institutionalization of an ethnic group and its culture is no insignificant feat and effects a qualitative change in the group and its culture, creating a new kind of culture and cultural politics and a new perspective on culture which some anthropologists have likened to a "culture cult." Ethnic groups which achieve (some would say "awaken to") nation status—and even more so, those which take the next step into nation alism —are substantially altered by the fact. Their aims and aspirations, their identity, and even their very culture are changed by the shift in dimension from ethnicity to nationhood—and not in the simple sense of "waking up" to a pre-existing identity and cause. In fact, most ethnic groups which have not attained nation-consciousness exist below the threshold of world attention; most of the "ethnic conflicts" which fill our televisions and newspapers, are therefore more than ethnic; they are "ethnonational" or even "national" in nature. At this stage in history, such conflicts, rather than conflicts between states, are the most common and seem the most likely to spread and intensify. The nation, in the modern sense of the word, is thus intermediate, in terms of identity and of political organization, between the micro-organization of the family,
clan, tribe, etc., and the macro-organization of such collectivities as, for instance, the Islamic umma or Christendom. Ethnicity and Nationalism Having distinguished ethnic group and nation as two types of collectivity, sometimes empirically overlapping but not conceptually identical, it should be evident that I must distinguish the forces or processes which underlie or motivate them, namely ethnicity and nationalism.
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- Test, Ethnic group