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period of uncertainty, social activism, and political reform-main objective: eliminating corruption in government (taking down political machines)-established further means of direct democracy-sought regulation of monopolies (Trust Busting) and corporations through antitrust laws-tax reform, women's suffrage, political reform, industrial regulation, minimum wage, the eight-hour work day, and workers' compensation (series of reforms)-ended with World War I (energies were redirected into the war effort)Initiative/Referendum/Recall-process that allows citizens of many U.S. statesto place new legislationon a popular ballot-one of the signature reforms of the Progressive Erawritten into several state constitutions-Initiative:people have the right to propose a new law-Referendum:a law passed by the legislature can be referenced to the people forapproval/veto-Recall: thepeople can petitionand vote to have an elected official removed from office-made elected officials more responsible and sensitive to the needs of the people-made government more efficient and scientificWisconsin Idea-series of reforms developed by Robert La Follette, governor of Wisconsin-created by the state's progressives to do away with monopolies, trusts, high costs of living, and predatory wealth-reforms in labor and worker's rights → therefore, wanted advices from experts -emphasis on higher learningand well-funded universitiesAtlanta Compromise
-agreement between Booker T. Washington, other African-American leaders, and Southern white leaders-opposed by W. E. B. Du Bois-blacks would work meekly and submit to white political rule → receive basiceducation and due processin law-blacks would not agitate for equality, integration, or justice, and Northern whites would fund black educational charities-blacks should focus on self-improvement-blacks had to accept segregation in the short term as they focused on economic gain to achieve political equality in the futureHorizontal and Vertical Integration-Horizontal-reduce competitionand increase market shareby using economies of scale-technique used by John D. Rockefeller-joining with one’s competitors to create a monopoly-Vertical-supply chainof a company is owned by that company-each member of the supply chain produces a different productor (market-specific) service, and the products combine to satisfy a common need -bring large portions of the supply chain under common ownership and one corporation -A single company owns and controls the entire process from raw materials to the manufacture and sale of the finished productNiagara Movement-black civil rightsorganization founded led by W. E. B. Du Boisand William Monroe Trotter-named for the "mighty current" of change the group wanted to effect and Niagara Falls, where the first meeting took place-call for opposition to racial segregationand disenfranchisement-created a list of demands (unrestricted right to vote, end to segregation, equality of economic opportunities, etc.)Gospel of Wealth-article written by