Period of uncertainty social activism and political

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period of uncertainty, social activism, and political reform - main objective: eliminating corruption in government (taking down political machines ) - established further means of direct democracy - sought regulation of monopolies (Trust Busting) and corporations through antitrust laws - tax reform, women's suffrage, political reform, industrial regulation, minimum wage, the eight-hour work day, and workers' compensation (series of reforms) - ended with World War I (energies were redirected into the war effort) Initiative/Referendum/Recall - process that allows citizens of many U.S. states to place new legislation on a popular ballot - one of the signature reforms of the Progressive Era written into several state constitutions - Initiative: people have the right to propose a new law - Referendum: a law passed by the legislature can be referenced to the people for approval/veto - Recall: the people can petition and vote to have an elected official removed from office - made elected officials more responsible and sensitive to the needs of the people - made government more efficient and scientific Wisconsin Idea - series of reforms developed by Robert La Follette, governor of Wisconsin - created by the state's progressives to do away with monopolies, trusts, high costs of living, and predatory wealth - reforms in labor and worker's rights → therefore, wanted advices from experts - emphasis on higher learning and well-funded universities Atlanta Compromise
- agreement between Booker T. Washington , other African-American leaders, and Southern white leaders - opposed by W. E. B. Du Bois - blacks would work meekly and submit to white political rule → receive basic education and due process in law - blacks would not agitate for equality, integration, or justice , and Northern whites would fund black educational charities - blacks should focus on self-improvement - blacks had to accept segregation in the short term as they focused on economic gain to achieve political equality in the future Horizontal and Vertical Integration - Horizontal - reduce competition and increase market share by using economies of scale - technique used by John D. Rockefeller - joining with one’s competitors to create a monopoly - Vertical - supply chain of a company is owned by that company - each member of the supply chain produces a different product or (market- specific) service, and the products combine to satisfy a common need - bring large portions of the supply chain under common ownership and one corporation - A single company owns and controls the entire process from raw materials to the manufacture and sale of the finished product Niagara Movement - black civil rights organization founded led by W. E. B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter - named for the "mighty current" of change the group wanted to effect and Niagara Falls , where the first meeting took place - call for opposition to racial segregation and disenfranchisement - created a list of demands (unrestricted right to vote, end to segregation, equality of economic opportunities, etc.) Gospel of Wealth - article written by

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