Random Sample every member of the population has an equal chance of being in

Random sample every member of the population has an

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Random Sample: every member of the population has an equal chance of being in the sample. More representative of population -Pro:-Inexpensive, quick, easy-Random sample can be representative -Cons:-Biased response -Social desirability-Unintentional wrong answers-Wording effects -Naturalistic Observation -Record behavior of organisms in their natural environment -Unobtrusive, no intervention by researcher-e.g. Jane Goodall’s chimpanzees-Pro:-Observation of behavior in natural settings (no artificial labs)-Cons:-Difficult to be truly unobtrusive-Ethical concerns -*Correlation*
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-measure of how closely related two variables are -2 correlated variables are predictive of each other -correlation coefficient (r):statistic that measures correlation --1 to + 1-2 key components: direction and size -Positive:increase in one variable predicts increase in the other -e.g. height and weight -Negative:increase in one variable predicts decrease in the other -e.g. illness and vaccination -zero correlation: no relationship between variables -not predictive of each other -Size: -bigger correlations= more predictive-Smaller correlations=less predictive -Pros: -Demonstrates covariation, allows for prediction -Easy to do, low cost when a variable cannot be manipulated -Cons:-Correlation does not imply causation -Third variable problem: possibility that 3rdvariable influences both X and Y-X and Y seem directly related but aren’t Biology in Psychology-Neuroscience: Scientific study of the nervous system -Biopsychology: link between biology and behaviors/mental process -Neuron: Nerve cell -Glial cells: fill gaps between neurons, 10X as many neuron cells. Aid natural communication, care and upkeep of neurons.3 Functions of a Neuron1.Receive signals from others neurons or senses 2.“process” signals 3.Send signals to other neurons, muscles, organs -“Neurotransmission”--Dendrite: branches that receive messages from other neurons (“antennae”)-Cell body (soma): central part of the neuron, contains nucleus -Axon: long, cable-like extension that delivers messages to other neurons
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-Myelin Sheath: layer of fatty tissue that insulates axon and speeds up the neurotransmission-Schwann Cells: segments of myelin sheath -Nodes of Ranvier: gaps between Schwann cells -Terminal buttons: structures at ends of axon branches, contain neurotransmitters -Multiple sclerosis: deterioration of myelinslowed communication with muscles, impaired sensation in limbs How does the Neuron work?-Neurotransmission is an electrical process -All or none law:neuron is always either firing or at rest -Resting potential: negative charge within neurons at rest -Sodium (NA+) ions outside neurons -Action potential: shifting electrical charge moving down axon-“Electrochemical process”-Neuron in Action: resting potential until neuron receives messages-Excitatory Messages: (Gas Pedal) driving force of signals -Inhibitory Messages: (Brake Pedal) stopping force of signals -Threshold: number of excitatory signals needed for neuron to fire (all or none) -Sodium channels open Na+ rushes into axon
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