nguphap_ta_0353

15 dùng tr ợ ñộ ng t ? ñể di

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15. Dùng tr ñộ ng t ñể di n ñạ t tình hu ng quá kh (modal + perfective) 15.1 Could, may, might + have + P 2 = có l ñ ã Di n ñạ t m t kh n ă ng có th ñ ã x y ra quá kh song ng ườ i nói không dám ch c. It may have rained last night, but I'm not sure. He could have forgotten the ticket for the concert last night. I didn't hear the telephone ring, I might have been sleeping at that time. The cause of death could have been bacteria. John migh have gone to the movies yesterday. 15.2 Should have + P 2 = L ra ph i, l ra nên Ch m t vi c l ra ñ ã ph i x y ra trong quá kh nh ư ng vì lí do nào ñ ó l i không x y ra. Maria shouldn't have called John last night. (She did call him) John should have gone to the post office this morning. The policeman should have made a report about the burglary. Chúng ta c ũ ng có th dùng c m t was/were supposed to + [verb in simple form] ñể thay cho should + perfective .
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S ư u t m và thi ế t k ế b i Ph m Vi t V ũ - 59 – Tr ườ ng ðạ i H c Kinh T ế ð à N ng John was supposed to go to the post office this morning. The policeman was supposed to make a report about the burglary. (Anh ta ñ ã không l p biên b n v tr m) 15.3 Must have + P 2 = ch c là ñ ã, h n là ñ ã Ch m t k ế t lu n logic d a trên nh ng hi n t ượ ng có ñ ã x y ra quá kh (ngh ĩ a 2 c a must ph n trên). Chú ý r ng không bao gi dùng c u trúc này v i ngh ĩ a 1. Ch ñượ c dùng had to ho c should + perfective ho c be supposed to khi di n t m t trách nhi m b t bu c quá kh . The grass is wet. It must have rained last night. (It probably rained last night) Jane did very well on the exam. She must have studied hard. I didn't hear you knock, I must have been gardening behind the house 16. Cách dùng should trong m t s tr ườ ng h p c th khác Di n ñạ t k ế t qu c a m t y ế u t t ưở ng t ượ ng: S If I was asked to work on Sunday I should resign. Dùng trong m nh ñề that sau nh ng tính t ch tr ng thái nh ư anxious/ sorry/ concerned/ happy/ delighted ...: L y làm . .. r ng/ l y làm . ..vì I'm anxious that she should be well cared for. (Tôi lo l ng r ng li u cô y có ñượ c s ă n sóc t t không) We are sorry that you should feel uncomfortable (Chúng tôi l y làm ti ế c vì anh th y không ñượ c tho i mái) That you should speak to him like that is quite astonishing (Cái cách mà anh nói v i anh y nh ư v y qu ñ áng ng c nhiên).
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15 Dùng tr ợ ñộ ng t ñể di

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