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303.Principles of operant conditioning have most directly influenced the development ofA)cognitive therapies.B)humanistic therapies.C)behavior therapies.D)psychodynamic therapies.304.The practice of ________ is based on the application of operant conditioning principles.305.Influencing patients by therapeutically controlling the consequences of their actions illustrates an application of306.In one treatment program, parents spent 40 hours a week attempting to shape the behavior of their uncommunicative 3-year-olds with autism spectrum disorder. This program most clearly involvedPage 54
307.What would be most helpful for encouraging adults with intellectual disabilities to maketheir beds every morning?A)cognitive therapyB)aversive conditioningC)a token economyD)systematic desensitization308.In which operant conditioning procedure are positive reinforcers given for desired behaviors?309.Mr. Quinones, a fifth-grade teacher, gives a blue plastic star to each student who achieves a high score on a math or spelling test. At the end of the semester, students can exchange their stars for prizes. Mr. Quinones' strategy illustrates an application of310.Which of the following is most often criticized for violating clients' rights to personal freedom and self-determination?311.Proponents of ________ have argued that maintaining appropriate patient behaviors with positive rewards is more humane than relying on punishment.A)stress inoculation trainingB)aversive conditioningC)token economiesD)free associationPage 55
312.Cognitive therapies are most likely to focus on the extent to which emotional disturbances result from