This is because the parathyroid gland produces a hormone called parathyroid

This is because the parathyroid gland produces a

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calcium levels. This is because the parathyroid gland produces a hormone called parathyroid hormone or PTH. PTH raises the blood calcium level and increases the body’s ability to absorb calcium from food. So if the PTH levels were high, that would mean the blood calcium levels would also be high. 2. Low calcium levels in the blood stimulate parathyroid hormone secretion, whereas high calcium levels in the blood prevent the release of parathyroid hormone. 3. The downstream effectors that the parathyroid hormone acts on are osteoclasts whose number are increased by PTH. This would cause excess blood calcium and explain the kidney stones which would cause the pain in the flanks and abdominal pain. This could also be the reason for the fatigue due to calcium being a second messenger involved in the contraction of muscles. 4. Possible treatment would be to remove the tumor. Even if calcium levels drop due to this, the patient could take a calcium supplement at that point. This would be a permanent solution and would be an improvement at the cellular, organ, and systemic level. 5. The setpoint is the serum calcium level. The variables would be the serum calcium levels and PTH levels. The receptors would be the PTH receptors on the osteoclasts. The effectors would be the kidney tubules and osteoclasts in bone, and the integrating center would be the parathyroid gland.
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  • Summer '20
  • Calcium metabolism, Hyperparathyroidism

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