S Soviet space diplomacy Real space cooperation between Russia the West became

S soviet space diplomacy real space cooperation

This preview shows page 8 - 9 out of 16 pages.

deploying multiple space combat systems despite years of U.S.-Soviet space diplomacy. Real space cooperation between Russia the West became possible only after the fall of the Soviet Union, and may again become threatened by Russia’s slide into authoritarian aggression. Substantive cooperation with China in space offers no assurance that China will change its threatening behaviors on Earth or in space, but does create opportunities for China to exploit U.S. and Western space tech nology to gain potential military advantages . ////The following will address questions posed by the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission. But first, it is necessary to reflect on the relationship between China’s pursuit of space power and its military buildup for regional dominance and global projection. ////Space Power and China’s Military Expansion ////During the 1950s and 1960s, Mao Zedong sought to quickly exploit generous assistance from the Soviet Union, and the insights of U.S.-trained engineers like Qian Xuesen, to complete the early nuclear missiles to deter feared U.S. and Soviet nuclear strikes. His 651 Program succeeded in launching the Dong Fang Hong-1 satellite in 1970, while also aiding the development of larger missiles. But Mao’s efforts to build broader space power, such as the 640 Program to build strategic missile defenses, and his early 741 Program manned space ship, faltered largely due to his destructive politics. Mao, nevertheless, realized that China required the technology and 3 prestige of space in order to increase its ability to compete with Moscow and Washington on the global stage. //// Fears for political survival and a mbitions for global leadership remain the basis for China’s current surge for global military power and space power. The greatest impetus for the most recent phase of PLA modernization and buildup was the shock of the 1989 Tiananmen rebellion -- the only time the Party’s power position was actually threatened by popular, though unorganized, reformist and democratic demands . In addition to ruthlessly crushing any potential for democratic dissent, the transitioning CCP leadership of Deng Xiaoping to Jiang Zemin decided to begin the broad military and space modernization and buildup we see today. //// At first focused on coercing Taiwan and then securing control over disputed territories, the early 19 90s saw the start of many PLA programs increasing its Anti-Access/Area Denial ( A2AD) capability targeted on the “First Island Chain .” These include the Chengdu Aircraft Corporation’s 4th generation J-10 fighter and its J-20 5th generation fighter, and the large Xian Aircraft Corporation Y-20 heavy jet transport. China’s aircraft carrier ambitions predate Tiananmen but second generation nuclear attack and ballistic submarine programs received greater emphasis. This period also saw the beginnings of the PLA’s first recon naissance strike complex of terminally guided medium-range missiles, and the ability to target them with high resolution surveillance , navigation and communication satellites. In addition, the PLA started developing its second anti-ballistic missile (
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