GH 101 Pop lec 2014 Revised.pdf

Global environment is compromised by pollution

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Global environment is compromised by pollution & warming Questions for policy: Are population growth, large family size, high population density root causes of poverty, hunger, pollution? Is urbanization a root cause of poverty hunger, pollution? Does family planning reduce population growth? Does family planning improve health and development?
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Note: Natural increase is produced from the excess of births over deaths. Classic Stages of Demographic Transition © 2011 Population Reference Bureau S OURCES : Population Reference Bureau estimates and projections (1800 and 202 Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Seventh Eighth 30 Years (1960) 14 Years (1974) 13 Years (1987) 12 Years (1999) 12 Years (2011) 12 Years (2023) ?
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Less Developed Countries Have More Young People Relative to Elderly Source: United Nations Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision , and Population Reference Bureau (2010) © 2010 Population Reference Bureau 20 S OURCE : UN Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision (2009). 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 0-4 200 200 100 100 0 Population (millions), 2010 300 300 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 0-4 200 200 100 100 0 Population (millions), 2010 300
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Relationships between Population, Health and Poverty Are there causal relationships between: 1. Rapid population growth 2. High population density 3. Large family size and health and poverty indices? Overall answer : – Variable associations (positive and negative) – Usually small quantitative relationships, if any – Not a dominant effect
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Population Density
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Population Density (pp/km) (among countries over 20m pop) Poorest 1997 2010 Ethiopia 34 75 Bangladesh 688 1033 DRC 13 28 Uganda 86 139 Myanmar 62 71 Richest 1997 2010 USA 25 32 Japan 322 335 Germany 225 231 France 110 114 UK 230 255 Other countries 1997 2010 Vietnam 223 265 Netherlands 351 400 India 227 373 China 107 140 Haiti 192 360 Kenya 33 70 Nigeria 104 171 Kerala (30m) 819 Source: United Nations World Population Prospects (2004 revision). Data is for 2005.
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Global Population Density Source: http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/wdc/map_gallery.jsp
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Is population density a causal factor in poverty or malnutrition? High population density might potentially lead to poverty, malnutrition, or poor health by decreasing the amount of arable land for farming, thus reducing available food. Also, increased density might increase pollution and reduce fuel biomass Ø No analysis has demonstrated a causal link. Note: Many of the densest populations are well off rich countries in Europe or Asia. Pollution is not consistently associated with high population density (e.g., USA)
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Family Size
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Is large family size a causal factor in poverty? Theoretical arguments, pro and con: Large family size can lead to poverty by increasing intra-household inequality, by decreasing the ability of women to work for pay decreasing opportunities for education and health of children by reducing the family's ability to save and invest to protect itself from unexpected decreases in income.
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