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nonmaterial culturerefers to nonmaterial components such as cultural values, beliefs, and behaviors. Technology is a cultural element in that it bonds people together
through a common, shared interest. Technological tools and techniques such as smart phones and social media are part of material culture; they exist as tangible items for people to use and value in society. Ogburn's (1922) theory has four components: 1. Invention.An invention or discovery is a new creation of material culture.The new invention will persist as long as it has a purpose. Even if it ceases to exist, the knowledge that we gained from the invention is beneficial for the creation of new technologies.2. Accumulation. Material culture accumulates. That is, a new invention is built on the technologies that precede it. As new inventions are created based on other inventions, accumulation increases. As the rate of inventions then increases, this leads to rapid progress.3. Diffusion. Cultural diffusion is simply the spread of culture from one group to another. For the new invention to be diffused, communication between groups and acceptance of the invention is necessary. Cultural inertia is when the idea is not widely accepted and therefore is not widely spread.4. Adjustment. Adjustment is the process where people adapt to the new invention. Because material culture is created before we adjust, people are likely not used to or may not be ready for a new technology. The nonmaterial culture such as our values and behaviors have not yet adapted to the new invention. Thisis what Ogburn describes as cultural lag, which is the maladjustment period of time that the nonmaterial culture lags behind the new material culture. Rogers’ theory on types of adoptersRogers also distinguishes categories of people who adopt the innovation at various rates, to form the rate of adoption across the social system. This diffusion rate follows an S-shaped curve, in which the earliest adopters are few, but once a critical mass hits around 10-20% of users, theinnovation begins to take off and is spread throughout the social system until it has saturated the market.
Figure 4.3 Rogers' rate of diffusion through the social systemThe yellow line on the graph represents the rate of adoption, startingwith the earliest users who are the innovators that make up a small 2.5% ofthe system. The innovatorslike to take risks and may even enjoy the uncertainty that comes with adopting an innovation that has not been tried before, which can also fail before it has a chance of diffusion. These are active seekers of new ideas who want to be the first to launch the new ideaand spread knowledge about it, yet they may not be respected by others because their behaviors may be considered deviant by the rest of the group. Early adoptersmake up about 13.5% of the social system and include those who are more integrated into the system and respected by others. They learn about the technology from the innovators and evaluate