wants to study pro-environmental behaviour in general, than the determinants should be measured on this general level. Comments on theory of Planned Behaviour The model of the theory of Planned Behaviour assumes that consumers make decisions by calculating the costs and benefits of different courses of action and choosing the option that maximises their expected net benefits. The theory of Planned Behaviour belongs to the so-called group of ‘rational choice models’. It builds on the following key assumptions: -Individual self-interest is the appropriate framework for understanding human behaviour; rational behaviour is the result of processes of cognitive deliberation; -Internal factors, especially the attitude, play the most important role. The policy interventions that flow from this model are relatively straightforward. Policy should seek to ensure that consumers have access to sufficient information to make informed choices. Though familiar and widely used, rational choice models have been subject to an extended critique. This critique is based on the following important claims and arguments. •It is well known that human behaviour is extremely complex and consists of social, moral and altruistic behaviour as well as simply self- interested ones. More often, behaviour is embedded in collective and social decision-making contexts and other contextual factors. These factors continually shape and constrain individual preference. •Habits and routines - which Simon (1957) referred to as procedural rationality - bypass cognitive deliberation and undermine a key assumption of the model. •Emotional or affective responses appear to confound cognitive deliberation. It is well known in marketing theory, for example, that consumers build affective relationships with consumer goods. In the next section, we will describe habitual behaviour and especially the relation to the Planned Behaviour. 4. Habitual Behaviour Habitual behaviour is a form of automatic and routine behaviour. It is behaviour that people repeat, because this behaviour is easy, comfortable or rewarding. It is efficient to do something by habit, and not to constantly reason with oneself about what is the best thing to do. The intrinsic advantages of the behaviour outweigh the possible disadvantages. ‘Intrinsic’ because, in the case of habitual behaviour, there is no constant weighing of pros and cons. Figure 2 shows the mechanism. The ‘plusses’ (at the right in the model) weigh against the ‘minuses’ and change the originally planned behaviour into a habit. Through repetition, a ‘loop’ and an automatism develop: reasoned weighing does not occur every time, but only when the loop is broken. The next example may clarify this: If someone takes the car to work every day, he does this because it easy, comfortable and cheap. He gets in the car in front of his house, and gets out at the office; he plays his favourite music, and is not bothered by the weather. ‘Weighing’ has become intrinsic and implicit, and is not done every time he travels
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