80. Some animals can become infected with multiple influenza virus strains usually associated with other animals. Which statement below describes the result of these infections? A. A new novel strain of flu may be produced, for which the human population has no immunity. B. Major genetic variations in the flu viruses can be reproduced. C. The viral genomes within the host cells can become recombined. D. All of the above are possible outcomes.
81. How are viroids transmitted?
82. Tamiflu is a common medication given for influenza treatment, its action being to protect and block sialic acid molecules on the surfaces of host cells and influenza virus envelopes as they leave the cell. Which statement reflects the mechanism of Tamiflu's action?
83. Successful anti-HIV drug therapies today work by blocking the action of viral reverse transcriptase. Select which step of virus multiplication that would be directly blocked by this mechanism:
84. You are working in a laboratory that is studying a newly isolated virus. Your job is to culture the virus using in vitro methods. Upon observing your inoculated tissue culture specimen one day, you noticeclumps of cells growing on top of the original monolayer of cells. Microscopic analysis of stained cells from the culture reveal an alteration in host cell membrane protein content and chromosomal structure. Based upon this information, you hypothesize that the virus you are studying is: A. a bacteriophageB. a prionC. a viroid