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Mitosis and Meiosis Study Guide

H aploid cells have h alf of the number of

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H aploid cells Have h alf of the number of chromosomes (n); Cells used in sexual reproduction, sperm and ova (also known as gametes or germ cells) Diploid cells contain two complete sets (2n) of chromosomes; examples are skin, blood, muscle cells (also known as somatic cells ) Chromatid Half of a duplicated chromosome. One of two “sister” parts, makes half of the “X”;
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Synapsis The pairing between two homologous chromosomes; The act of lining up side by side by homologous chromosomes during the meiotic phase of cell division Spindle fiber Help separate the chromosomes. Fan shaped structure made of microtubules. . Interphase Part of the cell cycle when the cell is not dividing 3 parts: G1 –phase of the cell cycle after cell division, growth and day to day life of a cell. S Phase –Replication or synthesis of DNA and associated proteins that happens before cells divide. G2 –Phase of the cell cycle when cells prepare for cell division by making more organelles and cytoplasm. Mitosis Summary a process of cell division in which the parent cell makes two new daughter cells, each with the same number of chromosomes as the parent.
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Meiosis Summary 2 divisions Result = 4 daughter cells with half the chromosome number of the parent cell
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Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis
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HOW ARE THESE PROCESSES DIFFERENT? Sources of Genetic Variation crossing over of homologous chromosomes the random alignment of the chromosomes during metaphase I (independent assortment) the combination of sperm and egg genes (random fertilization).
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Diploid Haploid About: Diploid cells contain two complete sets (2n) of chromosomes. Haploid cells have half the number of chromosomes (n) as diploid - i.e. a haploid cell contains only one complete set of chromosomes. Cell Division and Growth: Diploid cells reproduce by mitosis making daughter cells that are exact replicas. Haploid cells are a result of the process of meiosis, a type of cell division in which diploid cells divide to give rise to haploid germ cells. A haploid cell will merge with another haploid cell at fertilization. Examples: Skin, blood, muscle cells (also known as somatic cells ) Cells used in sexual reproduction, sperm and ova (also known as Gametes).
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H aploid cells Have h alf of the number of chromosomes n...

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