Central administration no legislatures there

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-Central administration – No legislatures there-Conversion was run by the crown (financed, guarded by soldiers) -Spain’s official religion is Roman Catholic -Virtually all countries have a specific legal religion -Supported by government. Church attendance was mandatory.Spain’s New World Colonies Continued
-Encomienda: Grant of land and the (forced) labor of native population -Encourage settlement by men leaving the military. Promise of riches through work, and land acquisition 2-6-17Settlement Colonies: New Spain/New England Spain’s New World Colonies -Social Structure -Intermarriage:-Encouraged in Roman Catholic colonies (Spain, France)-Moral reasons – keep soldiers from “sin”-Native Conversion to Christianity -Convert mothers and children into devout Christians -Strategic reasons – “breed” loyalty through Mestizo children -Children attached to: -New World through mothers and home country’s rule through fathers Demographics of Spanish New World -Few settlers from home country-Discharged soldiers and their native families -Royal officials (higher social class) -Some stay on large land grants. Many go home to retire.-Race structure develops differently in Catholic Colonies BECAUSE of intermarriage as a policy “The Black Legend”
-Persists to this day in textbooks, popular memory -Actual fact: Slavery is slavery is slavery…Struggle for Dominance: “The Black Legend” -Bartolome de las Casas:- “A Brief History of the Destruction of the Indies”-A priest complains to the Spanish Government – treatment of Indians is far from “Christian” -Published in Europe -Some changes in laws for colonies -England uses this: To “prove” Spanish (Catholic) colonization is more brutal thanEnglish (Protestant) 1865-80 The Pueblo Revolt – Santa Fe, New Mexico -Missions are encomienda’s (20k in AZ/NM)-Priest, soldiers, some settlers/family, and Indians 1675: Drought, starvation, and Navajo/Apache raids-Failure of Spanish to protect Pueblos -Retreat to “old ways” in religion 3 hanged, and 43 were publicly whipped -Revolt by 1680, Spanish chased down Rio Grande -Revolt started in Santa Fe-23 Franciscans brothers, and 400 civilians were killed-1692 Spanish re-conquer region San Miguel Church -Was rebuilt with parts of original mission after 1692 -Door detail from the cathedral showing the Spanish fleeing in 1680 English Mainland Colonies: North America
-Three zones of Settlement -Caribbean (and South Carolina) -Bermuda 1612-Chesapeake (and the South)-Jamestown 1607 -New England -Plymouth 1620, Massachusetts Bay Colony 1630 -Each develops from its origins in slightly different ways despite their common roots… English Caribbean Settlement -Earliest settlements -Few English migrants -Plantations (sugar) with absentee owners -Often aristocratic or business syndicates in England -Many overseers, and many slaves -Majority African or Indian populations -South Carolina Colony – Planters who moved to the mainland (sugar, rice, and indigo) -Majority of population enslaved Chesapeake Demographic -Men seeking fortunes like gold

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