i.This can be added to the graph by right-clicking any point andselecting the “Add Trendline” option in Excel.e.After the best-fit straight line is produced, an equation for the line will bereported on the graph using the following generic formula: y = mx + b.f.The density of the material is the slope of the line indicated by thecoefficient of x.g.If the equation is not available, to calculate the slope, two points that fallon the line will be selected and a calculation ofthe density will be thechange in y over change in x via the formula: ∆y/∆x = (y2– y1)/ (x2– x1).h.The value for the y-intercept, or the point where the line intersects the y-axis, should be zero. This is because when an object has zero volume itwill also have no mass.i.If your y-intercept is not zero, then experimental error is apparent.3)An example graph is shown below using data from table A.Procedure for Part 1: Density of Rubber Stoppers 1)Add 50 mL of distilled (or deionized) water to a 100.0 mL graduated cylinder.a.Measure the exact volume of water added by reading from the lowestpoint of the meniscus and record to the nearest tenth or first decimal place.2)Place graduated cylinder onto ananalytical balance.a.Once a stable mass is displayed, tare the balance (or set the mass to zero).3)Obtain a combination of 5 rubber stoppers that will easily fit into your cylinder.y = 4.215x -0.7750246810121416182022012345Cumulative Mass (g)Cumulative Volume Displaced (mL)Cumulative Mass Versus Cumulative Volume Displaced to Determine Density of TitaniumExperimental Density of Metal Measurement of 50.0 mL 50 45 Experiment #1 Barnett
7 4)Add one stopper at a time to the graduated cylinder and record the mass (orcumulative mass) of the stopper(s)between each addition, the total volumebetween each addition, and thevolume of water displaced.a.Be careful not to splash out any of the water.b.Record the mass indicated on the balance using all decimal placesprovided.5)Continue to add rubber stoppers (without removing the previous ones) and recordthe cumulative masses, total volumes, and volumes of waterdisplaced.6)Produce a graph of the cumulative mass versus the cumulative volumedisplacedusing a computerized graphing program.a.Compare the experimental/observed density to the true/theoretical densityand calculate a percent error.b.Percent error = [(true value – experimental value)/true value] * 100%i.Percent error cannot be a negative value. Take the absolute valueof the number if necessary.c.For the true/theoretical density, cite references for sources using properbibliographic technique. Procedure for Part 2: Density of Four Pure Metals 1)The four pure metals provided will be aluminum, copper, nickel, and zinc.2)Place 12.00 mL of distilled (or deionized) water into a 25.00 mL graduatedcylinder.
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