Get vaccinated against hepatitis B.Adults who are at high risk for hepatitis B infection and all children should get this vaccine. If youdo notget Hepatitis B, you cannot get Hepatitis D.The best way to avoid it is to cut your risk of getting hepatitis B. Talk to your doctor about getting an HBVvaccine. Avoid contact with blood or other body fluids of someone with hepatitis.If you already have hepatitis B, you can lower your risk of HDV. This means:Don’t share needles if you inject drugs.Keep personal items like your toothbrushand razor separate.Wear gloves if you have to touch someone else’s open wound or sore.HEPATITIS EHepatitisE is a virus that infects your liver. It can cause your liverto swell up.Most people with hepatitisE get better within a few months. Usually it doesn’t lead to long-term illness or liverdamage like some other forms of hepatitis do. But hepatitis E can be dangerous for pregnantwomen or anyone with weak immune systems, including the elderly or people who are ill.EPIDEMIOLOGYHEV is the primary cause of enterally transmitted NANB hepatitis. It is transmitted via the fecal-oral routeand appears to be endemic in some parts of less-developed countries, where most outbreaks occur. HEV can also be transmitted vertically to the babies of HEV-infected mothers. It is associated with a high neonatal mortality. In one report, anti-HEV antibodies were found to be present in 29% of urban children and 24% of rural children in northern India. Sporadic infections are observed in persons traveling from Western countries to these regions.RISK FACTORS
The risk factors for hepatitis E are related to poor sanitation, allowing virus excreted in the feces of infected people to reach drinking water supplies.PATHOPHYSIOLOGYHEV has an incubation period of 2-10 weeks. Acute HEV infection is generally less severe than acute HBV infection and is characterized by fluctuating aminotransferase levels. However, pregnant women, especially when infected during the third trimester, have a greater than 25% risk of mortality associated with acute HEV infection. In a number of cases, FHF caused by HEV has necessitated liver transplantation.Traditionally, HEV was not believed to cause chronic liver disease. However, several reports have described chronic hepatitis due to HEV in organ transplant recipients. Liver histology revealed dense lymphocytic portal infiltrates with interface hepatitis, similar to the findings seen with hepatitis C infection. Some cases have progressed to cirrhosis.CAUSESThe hepatitis E virus spreads throughpoop. You can catch it if you drink or eat something that has been in contact with the stool of someone who has the virus. Hepatitis E is more common in parts of the world with poorhandwashinghabits and lack of cleanwater.