IEC_Elctrical Energy Storage.pdf

Secondly ees can support the electrification of

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Secondly, EES can support the electrification of existing equipment so as to integrate it into the Smart Grid. Electric vehicles (EVs) are a good example since they have been deployed in several regions, and some argue for the potential of EVs as a mobile, distributed energy resource to provide a load- shifting function in a smart grid. EVs are expected to be not only a new load for electricity but also a possible storage medium that could supply power to utilities when the electricity price is high. A third role expected for EES is as the energy storage medium for Energy Management Systems (EMS) in homes and buildings. With a Home Energy Management System, for example, residential customers will become actively involved in modifying their energy spending patterns by monitoring their actual consumption in real time. EMSs in general will need EES, for example to store electricity from local generation 3 With extra investment in advanced control schemes and regulation they can also be made to provide a positive margin.
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S E C T I O N 1 The roles of electrical energy storage technologies in electricity use 14 “More renewable energy, less fossil fuel” On-Grid Area Renewable generation Off-Grid Area EV powered by electricity from less or non-fossil energy sources Power fluctuation Difficult to maintain power output Undependability Difficult to meet power demand Partial load operation of thermal power generation (inefficient operation) Electrical Energy Storage (EES) Stabilize wind and PV output in low, medium and high voltage grids Electrical Energy Storage (EES) Increases self consumption of dispersed PV energy in house- holds for low voltage grid release Time shifting of wind and PV energy in low and medium voltage grid Excessive RE installation to secure enough generation capacity Reinforce transmission facilities to cover wider area to utilize wind farms smoothing effects CO 2 reduction Independence from fossil fuels Electrical Energy Storage Figure 1-2 – Problems in renewable energy installation and possible solutions (TEPCO)
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15 when it is not needed and discharge it when necessary, thus allowing the EMS to function optimally with less power needed from the grid. 1.4 The roles of electrical energy storage technologies Generally the roles for on-grid EES systems can be described by the number of uses (cycles) and the duration of the operation, as shown in Figure 1-3. For the maintenance of voltage quality (e.g. compensation of reactive power), EES with high cycle stability and short duration at high power output is required; for time shifting on the other hand longer storage duration and fewer cycles are needed. The following sections describe the roles in detail. 1.4.1 The roles from the viewpoint of a utility 1) Time shifting Utilities constantly need to prepare supply capacity and transmission/distribution lines to cope with annually increasing peak demand, and consequently develop generation stations that produce electricity from primary energy. For
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