Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principles Accept that the quest for social justice can force you to break with conventional rules. AND ALSO with democratic processes o Social justice as a whole should be set in place and those that break it go through the judicial system. Hardly anyone reaches stage 6 aside from those that have gone above and beyond to do good (i.e. Nelson Mandela, Martin Luther King, Gandhi, etc.) Moral courage: is a sign of being high in Kohlberg’s stages. Gilligan’s Ethic of Caring: o Females put priority on fulfilling obligations to others, which guides their decision-making. o Emphasizes care as opposed to justice. o Gilligan said Kohlberg’s justice reasoning applies to males more than females. Proven wrong! They reason similarly and most think about both justice and caring. Prosocial lying: “polite” lying o Asians believe we can lie to an individual to protect a group o Americans believe that we can lie to a group to protect an individual Covell/Howe: morals in school o Made a curriculum to teach grade 8s their rights and responsibilities o After 6 months, assessed on self esteem, acceptance of others, understanding of rights o They showed a higher self-esteem, perceived others as supportive, and a higher respect for others. Colby, Kohlberg et al., (1983) Longitudinal Study
60 children are used from the times they are 10 years old until they are 34 years old. Examined the proportion of each stage at each age. Most teenagers are in stage 3. The point is that we move from one stage to the other through invariant order . Walking et al., (1987) Cross-sectional Study Grade 1, grade 4, grade 7, and grade 10 children. There were a lot of individual differences No parents were at the post-conventional stage! o Won’t generate discussions that make you post-conventional. More Research Sequence of stages: o No skipping of stages o Regression very rare Cross-Cultural evidence: o 27+ cultures support sequence (Snarey, 1985) o BUT cultural differences in highest stage achieved and most common reasoning type E.g., Miller & Bersoff (1992): Dilemma of whether he should steal the rain tickets to make it for his friend’s wedding. Indian Grade 3 : steal the ticket to fulfill the wedding American Grade 3 : Mo, don’t steal it! People from the Indian cultures are more of a community- based society where the social norm is stage 3 rather than stage 4. They are no as individualistic as Americans. How Does Moral Reasoning Develop? Cognitive milestones o Need concrete operations to use conventional reasoning Theory of Mind o Need formal operations to use post-conventional reasoning Abstract thought Social environment o Need opportunities to discuss moral issues o Disequilibrium Equilibration o Example: If I was in stage 2 and I was talking about something (i.e. kicking someone in the foot for not paying your taxes) and then I become questioned
by someone in a higher stage, this puts me in a state of disequilibrium .
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- Fall '13