General Grant back to Virginia where he would be given command of the Army of

General grant back to virginia where he would be

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General Grant back to Virginia, where he would be given command of the Army of the Potomac with orders to take Richmond at long last (Smith, 2002, pp. 206–283). Matthew Brady’s photographs of Grant and Sherman give some insights into their characters. Grant (left) was a simple man whose childhood dream was to become a farmer. Sherman (right) was subject to wild mood swings. Although they achieved great fame for their success on the battlefield, both men considered modern warfare a hellish experience. National Portrait Gallery Smithsonian Institution/Art Resource, NY
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CHAPTER 10 Section 10.5 The Final Year of the War: 1864 to 1865 Figure 10.3: Key Battles of the Civil War The battles of the Civil War were the bloodiest Americans had seen up to that point. 10.5 The Final Year of the War: 1864 to 1865 B y the spring of 1864, as the United States entered the fourth year of the Civil War, many Americans saw reason to hope that the fighting would soon end. The North had won important victories at Gettysburg, Vicksburg, and Chattanooga. With two new commanders in place, Sherman in Georgia and Grant in Virginia, and with both men having 100,000 men at their command, it seemed that it would only be a matter of time before the Union was victorious. But the Confederates—short on men, food, and sup- plies—dug in for a final confrontation that they hoped might still compel the Union to the negotiating table, especially if Lincoln could be defeated in his bid for a second term as president. Their resistance turned Virginia into a bloodbath. Grant’s campaign to take Richmond in the spring and summer of 1864 was so costly in human lives that the North- ern press began referring to him as “The Butcher.” Even though he lost men by the thousands in every battle, Grant kept going. As he often explained to his officers, who were stunned by the carnage, “No matter what happens, there will be no turning back!” At the Battle of the Wilderness fought between May 5 and 6 near Chancellorsville, he lost 18,000 men. Lee retreated south to Spotsylvania Court House, ordering his men to throw up earthworks to protect them as they fired at the Confederate states Union states or territories Union victories Confederate victories Gulf of Mexico Atlantic Ocean Vicksburg New Orleans Montgomery Fort Sumter Chickamauga Savannah Atlanta Chattanooga Shiloh Corinth Gettysburg Antietam Appomattox Chancellorsville Petersburg Richmond Fredricksburg Bull Run
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CHAPTER 10 Section 10.5 The Final Year of the War: 1864 to 1865 Union soldiers. Grant lost another 12,000 men but did not turn back. Instead, he followed the retreating Lee to Cold Harbor, just 9 miles from Richmond. In the first 10 minutes of fighting at Cold Harbor, Grant lost 7,000 men. In June, Grant pursued Lee’s army to Petersburg on the James River, where both sides dug trenches facing each other. Countless men died as Grant and Lee each tried to break the impasse. The news from Georgia was little better. By the late summer of 1864, Sherman, meeting heavy resistance south of Chattanooga, still had not made it to Atlanta (Smith, 2002, pp. 313–368).
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