1Whatwerethecliquesyouobservedorparticipatedinduringhighscho...

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Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development
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Chapter 16 / Exercise 04
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development
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1. What were the cliques you observed or participated in during high school? 2. What was the knowledge and/or behaviour that they seemed to organize around? 3. Were these cliques involved in bullying? 4. Bureaucracies The most successful form or organization is the bureaucracy Weber believed that bureaucracies were superior to earlier organizational forms Argued that bureaucracies arose in response to European nation-building, capitalism,  and industrialism Identified seven essential features of bureaucracies Characteristics  26
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Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development
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Chapter 16 / Exercise 04
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development
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1. Division of labour: bureaucracy provides the facilities and resources for carrying out  specific duties 2. Hierarchy of positions: authority centralized at the “top”;  flow of communication to  “control central” 3. Formal system of rules: documented, exist for all circumstances, and  guarantee  impersonal, predictable responses to specific situations 4. Reliance on written documentation: all communication, roles, etc. are documented    5. Separation of the person from the office: relations are impersonal and based on roles in  the organization 6. Hiring and promotion based on technical merit: hiring is based on technical competence 7. Protection of careers: as long as rules are followed, positions are secure  Bureaucracies in actual practice:  People may not act rationally and may develop a “trained incapacity” for dealing with new  situations (Merton) Cliques or informal organizations can develop  People perform different under observation (Hawthorne Studies) Other problems: rationality is impersonal, the autonomy of workers can be inhibited, and  organizations can lose tough with clients  Men and Women of the Corporation (Kanter, 1977) Case study of occupational gender segregation in a major corporation  Women concentrated in office jobs: low status, little autonomy or opportunity for  growth, low pay A masculine ethic of rationality dominated the spirit of managerialism: women who became  managers had to be “like a man”  These women were often “tokens” symbols of how-women-can-do, stand-ins for all  women  Major argument: What appear as sex differences in work are really responses to structural  conditions 27
Sociology Chapter 6 Social forms, basic elements of social structure that include groups, networks and  communities and organizations  Social interactions are the basic subject matter of sociology  o Purpose or motive of am interaction  o For, of interaction among individuals through which the interaction communicates its meaning  General observations  o Small or primary groups have similar characteristics and patterns, whatever the  purpose and goal  o In every group, certain structural changes will significantly affect how the group  operates  Study of social organization  o How do people typically act in social groupings of different size and purpose  o How could we organize social groupings to increase the chances that people will  achieve their collective goals  Sets of people  o

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