who refused to move the capital into the floodplain where it would be better

Who refused to move the capital into the floodplain

This preview shows page 24 - 26 out of 136 pages.

who refused to move the capital into the floodplain where it would be better situated relative to trade routes. Further, the king received profits from ivory and distributed within his court, shutting out the Barotse. Though the details are not clear, Birmingham (1976) ties the restoration of Lozi independence to this trade. He argues that traders operated independently of the state, and the second Kololo king was followed by an interregnum before a Lozi king was restored in the 1870s. He suggests that the western ivory trade “may have facilitated” this restoration. Gluckman (1941) suggests that the restored Lozi king traded cattle, ivory and slaves on his own account for trade goods that he distributed, both among his own people and among subject tribes. Overall, these are consistent with the Ricardian view that opportunities for trade give rise to states. While Songhai and Oyo expanded to capture more territory, they did so after having arisen in a location favorable to trade across ecological zones. The Luba too expanded after 1780, but did so based on power already acquired through prox- imity to the Bisa ivory trade. When that trade declined, the kingdom collapsed. The pre-Kololo Lozi dominance over surrounding peoples, while stemming in part from the cohesion deriving from their environment, also depended on the ability to trade and collect tribute in the diverse products of their neighbors. That the Suku participated in long-distance trade while possessing only limited internal markets further supports that
Image of page 24
ECOLOGY, TRADE AND STATES IN PRE-COLONIAL AFRICA 25 T ABLE 13. Alternative stories: Additional controls and ethnic competition [Table 13 here] it is the ability to trade the products of different macro-ecological regions that matters most. In every case, rulers relied heavily on taxing trade. The exception is Toro, which emerged in a region with an existing trade in salt and iron, but conquered Busongora in part to capture the most important source of salt in the region. Toro, however, inherited its political structure from Bunyoro, which had previously grown strong in part due to its sale of metal goods and control of the Kibiro salt industry. My third strategy for dismissing this alternative explanation is to control directly for area. This is not done in the main analysis, because it is potentially endogenous. States that independently develop strong states might have larger areas, biasing the coefficient on both area and potentially on the other coefficients. With that caveat in mind, if it is only through expansion that states become correlated with ecological diversity, there should be no correlation conditional on area. I include it, then, as an additional regres- sor in Table 13. The impact of area is negligible, and the coefficient remains significant, positive, and of a similar magnitude.
Image of page 25
Image of page 26

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 136 pages?

  • Spring '17
  • JAMES FENSKE

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask ( soon) You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes