Stability over time traits are consistent over time children who are

Stability over time traits are consistent over time

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Stability over time: traits are consistent over time (children who are introverted are more likely to play alone at school, as adults may seek out jobs that don’t involve social interaction, same traits but how they look differs); but, manifestation of trait may vary There is some personality traits that will change over time, the level will go up or down over time How is there consistency if a trait is known to change with age? Rank order : with a change in a given trait, a relative difference remains between individuals (those who score highly will still score higher than those who scored low, even if not as high as before) Rand order example, impulsivity: see some people will score high on impulsivity initially will still stay higher over time (see diagram in notes); people maintain same rank order over time Consistency across situations: trait (socially anxious, avoiding a party) behaviour; traits lead to behaviour, but traits themselves are not causal situation , the situation matters, certain contexts that people find themselves in that may not manifest what you would expect from that trait situation X trait, can lead to certain behaviours Person-situation interactions: strong situation almost all people will have an identical or similar reaction; situational specificity where people may have a very specific reaction to a specific situation (someone who is normally laid back, but very nervous when dating; or not overly anxious but in exam setting very anxious), selection personality plays a role in where we are going to be, what situation we choose to be in, evocation how we interact with people will evoke different responses, manipulation some people are very manipulative (narcissistic) but certain situations may illicit certain behaviours to manipulate a person (silent treatment) Consistency across situations (aggregation): important to get measurements at different times, in different situations (levels of neuroticism: take measurements at beginning of the semester, they score very high, it goes up during midterm, but a subsequent times the levels are still high take an average and are going to see that their average tendency is high levels of neuroticism; looking for test re-test reliability; consistency over time and across different situations Measurement issues: carelessness (some people may not care what they are doing, may have a half hazard way of responding, may get distracted, may get bored), faking on questionnaires (may want to present themselves in a different light; eg. To fake sickness to get compensation; some people may not want to be honest because they don’t want to be viewed in a certain light, eg. Cheating on your spouse), response sets , Barnum statements Carelessness: detected via (need to know when there is research mistakes) infrequency scales (have questions imbedded into the survey to see if people are paying attention to what is asked, expect people to answer the same way, eg. Water is wet), duplicate questions (have two questions 20-30
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