Exposures can be imaginal or in vivo real o exposure

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Exposures can be imaginal or in vivo (real) o Exposure and response prevention for obsessive compulsive disorder o Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD o Exposure Therapy for Specific Phobia Systematic desensitization o Often used for phobias and other anxiety disorders o Similar to exposure therapy, but relaxation training is included: Relaxation is incompatible with anxiety Counterconditioning occurs when relaxation response replaces anxiety response Assertiveness training o A specific application of classical conditioning that targets client’s social anxieties o Include elements of exposure and systematic desensitization Facing interpersonal fears o Include direct instructions, modeling, rehearsal, and homework Each of the following is a technique based primarily upon OPERANT conditioning EXCEPT: - Techniques Based on Operant Conditioning Contingency management o Powerful way to change behavior change then contingencies controlling it If consequences change, behavior changes o Reinforcement and punishment should be identified and altered as needed Reinforcement is typically preferred over punishment
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Aversion therapy is one type based on punishment of unwanted behavior Extinction o Removal of an expected reinforcement that results in decreased frequency of a behavior o Effective way to decrease unwanted behaviors o Initially, can cause extinction burst (an increase in unwanted behavior), but ultimately, if reinforcement is still withheld, decrease will occur Token economies o Setting in which clients earn tokens for participating in predetermined target behaviors Tokens can be traded for reinforcements o Most feasible in sites where behavior is continuously monitored School, impatient unit, correctional facility Shaping o Reinforcing successive approximations of the target behavior o Reward each “baby steps” toward the desired behavior o Best for changing behaviors that are complex, challenging, or novel for client Behavioral activation o Based on simple idea that depressed people lack positive reinforcement o Goal is to increase frequency of positively reinforcing behaviors Structured daily routine including rewarding behaviors Observational learning (or modeling) o Learning from contingencies applied to other people o Client observes demonstration of desired behavior and its consequences client given chances to imitate it Both imitation and vicarious learning can occur o Certain qualities of the model influence effectiveness of observational learning EXAMPLE: similarity to client increases learning Alternatives to Behavior Therapy Behavioral consultation o Indirect way for a behavior therapist to modify a client’s behavior o Three parites involved: the client, the consultee, and the consultant (therapist) o Consultee spends significant time in natural setting with client Parents, caretaker, manager Specific Behavioral Consultation Parent training o
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