He argues men were motivated by anti-Semitism and that they were not reluctant to carry out their orders, and instead willingly chose to kill ● These men are responsible ● The root problem is German culture and people ● These men killed because they were anti semitic, just like Germany as a whole ○ Their actions can only be explained by the fact that they are anti semitic ■ Lighting the synagogue on fire ■ It is uniquely German to be this anti semitic ● Rejects Browning’s peer pressure argument ○ if the majority had not wanted to kill then peer pressure would have caused them not to kill, but the majority wanted kill so peer pressure led to killing ○ German political culture had evolved to the point where these men were willing to kill ● Rejects situational factors ○ People do not assume the roles they are given ○ People are not always obedient to authority ■ They were the same Germans who defied the state authority of the Weimar Republic ● Concludes ○ The majority of Germans willingly engaged in the killins in the cruelest way possible ○ Anti-Semitism in Germany was unique couldn’t happen anywhere else ○ Like Browning he says they should be held responsible ■ he differs from Browning because he argues that they were eager to kill and motivated by anti-Semitism ■ Several problems with his argument, it is very mono-opinionated ■ Browning’s argument is stronger because it is based on multiple factors, including anti semitism Part III: Short identification Choose two short identification terms from the study guide and outline them by answering the basic who, what, when, where, and why. Remember to also include in your outline the significance of whichever term you choose to outline. I may recommend that you pick two that you are not real familiar with or that you are unsure about. Judenrat ● Who: the Jewish Council, a widely used administrative agency imposed by Nazi Germany ● What: municipal administrations who were required to ensure that Nazi orders and regulations were implemented usually in the ghettos to control the huge population of Jews
● When: during WWII ● Where: German-occupied Poland and eastern Europe ● Why: to control the growing population of Jews in the ghetto ● Significance: the Judenrat were controversial because they had the choice to decide whether or not to follow Nazi orders, like sending Jews to forced-labor camps. Chairmen were often killed for not following orders or committed suicide due to guilt Einsatzgruppen ● Who: a special task force under Himmler’s and SS supervision ● What: they worked to eliminate potential resistance to German rule ● When: WWII- 1939-1941 ● Where: They were first deployed in Poland and then in the Soviet Union ● Why: they were the the first steps toward the “Final Solution. ● Significance: the Einsatzgruppen carried out mass shootings of Jews in their efforts to eliminate resistance to German rule. They began killing large groups of Jews as the German army advance into Soviet territory. The Einsatzgruppen were responsible for Babi Yar
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- Spring '07
- The Holocaust, Chaim Kaplan