secular Jews and kibbutz teachers have more informal relationships with their superiors. His findings show that “differences between ethnic or cultural groups might be stronger than differences between countries” (A. Cohen, 2007, p. 297). Another intra-cultural study using Hofstede’s framework was conducted by Luczak (2009) in the United States who examines the marketing strategies adopted by individualist American and collectivistic Indian SME owners. She quantitatively tested the relationship between Hofstede’s five cultural dimensions and the two ethnic groups’ marketing networks. Significant differences are found between collectivistic, long term oriented Indians in using social networks as part of their marketing strategies, compared to the individualistic and shorter term oriented Americans. The Indians rely more on their social networks for business connections, information exchanges and are more relationship oriented relative to the Americans, in terms of clients’ contact. This intra-cultural study again showed the stark differences in marketing approach when considering ethnic groups within a country. Popper and Sleman (2001) conducted an intra-cultural study on leadership perception among two Israeli cultural groups, Jewish and Druze teachers, using four of Hofstede’s dimensions: individualism, masculinity, UA and PD. These two groups were chosen because the Druze are conservative, collectivist and exhibit high PD compared to the more modern, individualistic and low PD Jews. They observe that high PD Druze tend to view authoritative figures as “transactional” with the power to punish or reward them, while low PD Jewish teachers perceive closer relationship with their authoritative figures and view them as friends. Their research shows that the groups’ cultural differences help to explain their different perceptions of authority figures. Another intra-cultural research project was conducted by Koch and Koch (2007) on Chinese from the larger metropolitan cities compared to those from the smaller inland cities. They tested the individualism-collectivism of these two groups and their level of contribution to the community pot. They find that Chinese from the larger cities are more individualistic than the Chinese from the smaller cities. The collectivistic Chinese from the smaller cities are reluctant to contribute to the community pot and they cooperate more with a friend than with a stranger, whereas the individualistic Chinese show no such distinction. These studies show the use of and the merits of studying
61 intra-cultural differences using Hoftsede’s framework to better understand cultural groups within national borders. 4.8Summary This chapter discusses the comparative features of Hofstede (2001) and GLOBE (2004) frameworks and provides justification for choosing Hofstede for this thesis. Not everyone endorses Hofstede’s framework despite the extensive validations and wide citations of his work in the business and social science disciplines. The main criticisms of Hofstede’s work revolve around his methodology, the samples chosen, durability of cultures and the cultural homogeneity of a country. The responses and rebuttals to each
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