The pt is asked to keep a diary of foods consumed and allergic responses for a week. An elimination diet, excluding most common food allergens and all suspected foods is then prescribed for one week. Immunoglobulin titers: predictive of potential allergen responses and immunotherapy is prescribes when it is impossible to avoid the offending allergen and disrupt the client's life immunotherapy is also call hypo-sensitization or desensitization therapy it consists have gradually increasing doses of the allergen extract with weekly subcutaneous actions until the client develops IgG antibodies to the allergen that appear to block the allergic IgE mediated response. it issues primarily for allergic rhinitis hay fever or asthma and prevents anaphylactic responses to insects. Antihistamines: the major class of drugs used in treating the symptoms of hypersensitivity responses, type I in particular. Benadryl: block histamine receptors and act as antagonist Alleviate the systemic effects of histamine such as urticarial and angioedema (localized tissue swelling). Relieving allergic rhinitis, drying respiratory secretions through an anticholinergic effect. S/E: drowsiness and dry mouth. Antihistamines combined with a sympathomimetic agent such as pseudoephedrine to improve their decongestant activity and counteract their sedative effect. Anaphylaxis : Epinephrine; vasoconstricting and broncodilating For mild reactions with wheezing, pruritus, urticarial, and angioedema, a subq.. injection of 0.3-0.5 mL of 1:1000 epinephrine is generally sufficient. For pt. with an injected toxin such as bee sting, and additional amount equivalent to one- half the above may be injected directly into the site of the sting and a tourniquet applied above it to prevent further systemic absorption. Pt. who have experienced an anaphylactic reaction to insect venom or other potentially unavoidable allergens should carry a kit. The kit typically includes a prefilled syringe of epinephrine and an epinephrine nebulizer, allowing prompt self-treatment. Cromolyn sodium : Intal, Nasa Crom; prevents release of chemical mediators it is a drug to treat asthma and allergic rhinitis. To stabilize the mast cell membrane. it is used as a nasal spray on inhaler or it can be applied directly to the affected tissue Glucocorticoids : used in both systemic and topical forms for many types of hypersensitivity responses. Corticosteroids; anti-inflammatory effects Severe asthma, allergic contact dermatitis and some immune-complex disorders
Type II Hypersensitivity Response Type III Hypersensitivity Response Type IV Delayed Hypersensitivity Pathophysiology IgG or IgM type antibodies are formed to a cell- bound antigen such as the ABO or Rh antigen. Antigen attaches to foreign tissue Plasma cells produce IgG or IgM antibodies and bind to antigen stimulating complement cascade is activated, resulting in destruction of the target cell.
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- Fall '16
- Karen Price