VII. Use ‘Poka Yoke’ or fool-proofing Design in such a way that the parts cannot be assembled incorrectly. 6.6 DESIGN FOR EXCELLENCE While designing for manufacturability, the product design team should keep in its consideration the entire product family. Unitary approach may only result in sub-optimiation. Moreover, by the same logic, the designer/team should look beyond its own organisation to other associated organisations in the value chain. Design being a strategic activity, the design effort should not only improve the present efficiencies but should also keep the future in view while making the design and other changes. Finally, customer service should be the motto that should drive the product design effort in any organisation. Hence product design should be an all-round exercise, contributing to the overall excellence of the organisation. DFM is only about one aspect amongst many. Truly, the efforts should be towards design for excellence or DFX (X Excellence).
Product Development and Design 157 A key part of any product realization process is the robustness of the design. “Design for” initiatives such as Design for Assembly, Design for Cost, Design for Manufacturing, Design for Test, Design for Logistics, Design for Performance, and so on are now being referred to as Design for Excellence (DFX). It was found that Japanese design emphasizes two key areas; the overall development process and concurrent engineering. As shown in Figure 6.15 there is a strong customer focus at the product-planning phase and in the product evaluation phase of the product development process. The overall product development process is rooted in what Japanese firms call the “market- in”. Market-in refers to having a clear set of customer-driven requirements as the basis for product development. This is a fundamental requirement for DFX. Concurrent engineering of product design and development activities provides the second main step in achieving DFX. Fig. 6.15 Japan’s product development activities (Toyoda Machine Tool Co.) “In order to effectively deploy a timely design, thorough testing of the design and process training are considered a must. A successful DFX process requires carefully managed design of new products. As shown in Figure 6.16 there are numerous activities that must be coordinated in order to develop and implement a successful product realization effort. Information must be gathered and analyzed from regions of the globe in which products will be introduced, and products must be market-tested in those specific regions. An engine controller for use in an American version of a Japanese automobile, would, by necessity, receive its reliability testing in the United States.
158 Operations Management Products that are targeted globally also get tested in Japan in order to carefully control the products’ globalization. Technology development activities must operate in parallel with product technology planning and market development planning to assure timely development and introduction of new products.
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- Fall '17
- The Land