Vi declarants understanding declarant must understand

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vi. Declarant's understanding - Declarant must understand his own interests and how statement could affect them.  If lack necessary information, ct will exclude  statement b/c did not know it was against your interest. vii. Effect of later events - Against interest requirement may not be satisfied if  statement only becomes damaging in light of later unexpected events.   viii. Conclusory remarks - cts vary whether to allow conclusory statements against  interest. e. Examples i. Civil - "I owe Todd $1000." concede debt.  Can use to show owe Tom that amt  of $. ii. Criminal - "I murdered Todd."    Can now use declarations against penal interest, but must be corroborated.   iii. U.S. v. Barrett  (p.379) - W1 testified that W2, who is dead, said that the crime  involved "It wasn't D, it was Bucky."  D wants this statement admitted b/c  bolsters his defense.  This statement was against interest for W2 b/c showed he  had knowledge of the crime.  Ct should go on to step 2 and see if there is any  corroborating circumstances to indicate trustworthiness of statement. VI.HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS: CONSTITUTION AS BAR AGAINST HEARSAY  (p. 421) A. Confrontation Clause of 6th amendment says "accused shall enjoy the right . . . to be  confronted with the witnesses against him." 1. NO CROSS-X NOW - Prior statements that were subject to cross-x before  but are not  subject now are OK.  California v. Green . 26
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a. Does not violate Confrontation Clause b/c: i. Prior testimony under oath ii. D represented by counsel. iii. D had opportunity to cross-x iv. Testimony made in formality of judicial proceedings. b. Not asking questions at first proceeding does NOT mean you are waiving 6th  amendment right to confrontation.  See Barber v. Page  above. 2. NO CROSS-X BEFORE - Prior statements that are now subject to cross-x  but were not  subject before are OK.  California v. Green . a. Danger is violates confrontation clause b/c could not confront at time of statement.   Previous statement could have been false and not checked when statement was  made.  Or previous statement made and now declarant cannot remember making  statement or underlying events. b. Does not violate Confrontation Clause b/c: i. Jury can adequately evaluate his statement now. ii. Present statement made under oath.  Declarant must now affirm, deny, or qualify  story. iii. W now subj. to cross-x.  If W affirms story, can cross-x him now on it.  If W  now telling inconsistent story, good enough to cross-x W now about it b/c can  show he should not be believed b/c he has repudiated prior story.  
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