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L ư u ý r ằ ng on ñộ ng t ? tr

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L ư u ý r ng: on + ñộ ng t tr ng thái ho c in + ñộ ng t hành ñộ ng thì có th t ươ ng ñươ ng v i when ho c while :
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S ư u t m và thi ế t k ế b i Ph m Vi t V ũ - 108 – Tr ườ ng ðạ i H c Kinh T ế ð à N ng On finding the door ajar, I aroused suspicion. (= when finding) (Khi th y c a hé m , tôi n y sinh m i nghi ng ) In searching for underground deposits of oil, geologist often rely on magnometers. (= while searching) (Trong khi tìm các m d u trong lòng ñấ t, các nhà ñị a ch t th ườ ng d a vào t k ế .) N ế u không có gi i t ñ i tr ướ c, ch có V-ing xu t hi n trong m nh ñề ph thì th i c a câu do th i c a ñộ ng t m nh ñề chính quy ế t ñị nh; 2 hành ñộ ng trong hai m nh ñề th ườ ng x y ra song song cùng lúc: Present: Practicing her swing every day, Trica hopes to get a job as a golf instructor. Past: Having a terrible toothache, Henry called the dentist for an appointment. Future: Finishing the letter later tonight, Sally will mail it tomorrow morning. D ng th c hoàn thành [having + P2] ñượ c dùng ñể di n ñạ t tr ườ ng h p ñộ ng t c a m nh ñề ph x y ra tr ướ c hành ñộ ng c a m nh ñề chính: Having finished their supper, the boys went out to play. (After the boys had finished their supper. ..) Having written his composition, Louie handed it to his teacher. (After Louie had written . ..) Not having read the book, she could not answer the question. (Because she had not read. ..) D ng th c b ñộ ng [having been + P2] c ũ ng th ườ ng ñượ c s d ng ñể m ñầ u m t m nh ñề ph : Having been notified by the court, Mary reported for jury duty. (After Mary had been notified . ..) Having been delayed by the snowstorm, Jame and I missed our connecting flight. (After we had been delayed . ..) Not having been notified of the change in the meeting time, George arrived late. (Because he had not been notified . ..) Trong nhi u tr ườ ng h p, c m t being ho c having been c a th b ñộ ng có th ñượ c l ượ c b , khi ñ ó ch ng c a m nh ñề chính v n ph i phù h p v i ch ng c a m nh ñề ph :
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S ư u t m và thi ế t k ế b i Ph m Vi t V ũ - 109 – Tr ườ ng ðạ i H c Kinh T ế ð à N ng Incorrect : Found in Tanzania by Mary Leaky, some archeologists estimated that the three - million - year - old fossils were the oldest human remains that were discovered.
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L ư u ý r ằ ng on ñộ ng t tr

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