Those in the kidney liver and spleen were necrotic Abscesses were apparent in

Those in the kidney liver and spleen were necrotic

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poietic tissues were profound. Those in the kidney, liver and spleen were necrotic. Abscesses were apparent in the liver. In contrast, the brain did not reveal the presence of any lesions (Kobayashi et ai, 2004). Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes The fish displayed extensive skin lesions, which extended over the entire flank from the operculum to the tail. The skin and underlying muscle to a depth of approxi- mately 1 mm were totally eroded (Austin and Stobie, 1992b). Pseudomonas putida Altinok et al. (2006) described exophthalmia, melanosis and ulcers on the dorsal surface of rainbow trout in growout ponds in Turkey. The internal organs appeared normal, but the intestine was full of yellowish liquid. Vibrionaceae representatives Apart from the taxa discussed below, a study of the type strains of newly described and some older known vibrios and their ECPs revealed that V. brasiliensis (LD50 = - 2 X 10"^), V. corallilyticus (LD50 = 7.5 x 10^-2.5 x 10^), V. ezurae (LD50 = 7.3 X 10^), V. fortis (LD50 = -10^), V. kanaloaei (LD50 = <2 x 10^), V. neptunius (LD50 = 10^), V. rotiferianus (LD50 = < 10^— 5.0 x 10^) and V. tubiashi (LD5o= 2.5x10^) were pathogenic in laboratory-based experiments with rainbow trout with mortalities of up to 100% (Austin et al, 2005). It will be interesting to see if these organisms become recognised as pathogens in aquaculture. Vibrio alginolyticus From the description of Colorni et <2/. (1981) and Austin et al. (1993), the disease may be classified as a typical bacterial septicaemia. Infected fish were observed to become sluggish, the skin darkened, scales loosened and sloughed off, and ulcers developed. The liver, capillaries in the intestinal wall, air bladder and peritoneum became congested. Simultaneously, the intestine and gall bladder became distended with clear fluid and bile, respectively. Anaemia and gill rot were also reported. Austin et al. (1993) attributed the organism with gill disease leading to progressive low-level mortalities in turbot, which were maintained at supra-optimal temperatures in a
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Characteristics of the diseases 41 recirculating aquarium. The later study of Lee (1995) attributed the organism with causing exophthalmia and corneal opaqueness in grouper; signs that are reminiscent of the pathology caused by V. harveyi. Woo et al. (1995) and Ye et al. (1997) considered that V. alginolyticus was responsible for heavy mortahties in silver sea bream (Spams sarba) in Hong Kong. The organism has also been associated with disease in gilthead sea bream in Spain (Balebona et al., 1998). Vibrio anguillavum "Red-pest" (referred to historically ^spestis rubra anguillarum and erysipelosis anguil- larum) caused catastrophic losses among eels held in seawater sites within Italy during the 18th and 19th centuries. The excellent description of an outbreak of "red-pest" in eels during 1718 is undoubtedly the first reference to a bacterial fish disease in the European literature (Bonaveri, 1761). For a detailed account of the early narratives, reference is made to the splendid review of Drouin de Bouville (1907). However, confusion may result from the multiplicity of names used to describe the disease.
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