The nal item is the level of motivation The two items in Table 4 were combined

The nal item is the level of motivation the two items

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The ® nal item is the level of motivation. The two items in Table 4 were combined into a single measure. Since this is a more behavioural outcome, the influence of a range of attitudinal factors was also included in the regression. Together, the range of background factors accounted for 49 per cent of the variation in the level of motivation. The signi ® cant in¯ uences indicate that higher motivation is associated with: l being more satis ® ed (beta .40***) l being more committed to the organisation (.16***) l having a positive psychological contract (.12**) l being older (.11***) l being more senior in the organisation (.10**) l working on ® xed term or temporary rather than permanent contracts (.08*) l having a lower income (.08*) l experiencing good employment relations (.08*) l working in the public rather than the private sector (.07*) Once again, the influence of HR practices is indirect, but operates through the psychological contract and some of the attitudinal factors. Taken together, these results from the regression analysis con ® rm the value of using the more complex model which incorporates the state of the psychological contract as an intervening variable. It suggests that the impact of HR practices on workers’ outcomes depends on their evaluations of these practices, and perhaps the intentions that lie behind them, and is reflected in their assessment of the state of their psychological contract. Generally, the greater the number of HR practices affecting them, the more positive their assessment of the psychological contract, and the more positive the psychological contract, the more positive are a range of workers’ outcomes 3 . DISCUSSION The initial analysis in this article suggested that research concerning workers’ perspectives on and reactions to HRM have been neglected. With the growing interest in research on the relationship between HRM and performance, it becomes even more important to reinstate the workers’ viewpoint. In the absence of strong direct evidence about workers’ reactions to HRM, an in¯ uential and powerful critical perspective has been developed by a group of scholars who assert that HRM, while sometimes used by management to claim to give greater emphasis to workers’ concerns, in practice seeks to incorporate workers within a management-determined unitarist system of control, built on careful management of organisational culture. Somewhat paradoxically, while asserting that in this guise HRM is potentially dangerous for the well-being and independence of workers, they also assert that management has largely failed in this endeavour. The aim of the research presented here is to begin to ® ll the vacuum created by an absence of relevant data and to present an initial account of the workers’ verdict on HRM. David E Guest, University of London 21 HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT JOURNAL ± VOL 9 NO 3
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The verdict is surprisingly positive. A large proportion of the UK workforce have been on the receiving end of the kind of practices commonly associated with HRM. Furthermore, they like them. This rather contradicts the view that management accounts must be suspect because they are likely to `talk up’ the use of HRM. And it appears to contradict the critical
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