been illegal and demanded her reinstate ment but the provisional government

Been illegal and demanded her reinstate ment but the

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been illegal and demanded her reinstate- ment, but the provisional government refused. In 1896, President William McKinley assumed national power and submitted a treaty to the United States Senate to formally annex the Hawaiian Kingdom. That treaty was never passed or ratified by the Senate, largely because Queen Lili’uokalani and other Hawaiian delegates had come to California and on to Washington to protest annexation. They carried with them the petitions of thou- sands of Native Hawaiians proclaiming their faith in the monarchy. Like Mark Twain thirty years earlier, Queen Lili’uokalani arrived in San Francisco and began lecturing, writing, and protesting annexation efforts. The outbreak of the Spanish-American War, however, cast asunder the Queen’s efforts; a resolution in 1898 in Congress annexed the republic, which subsequently became the ter- ritory of Hawaii. Queen Lili’uokalani, ca. 1891 (1838–1917) © Library of Congress
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72 FOR GREATER UNDERSTANDING Questions 1. Where was Mark Twain traveling to in the summer of 1861 and in the springof 1866? 2. Who was Queen Lili’uokalani and why did she come to Washington in 1898? 1. The University of Dayton School of Law provides the chronicles and exam- ines the history of Native Hawaiian sovereignty. — 2. The Hawaiian Kingdom Independence Blog provides historical documents and current issues pertaining to Hawaiian sovereignty. —
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73 fter its expansion across the continent and into the Pacific, the United States began a process of incorporating American Indians into the struc- tures of American governance. Following the end of the Indian Wars and the final military confrontations and even massacres between the U.S. Army and Indian peoples across western North America, the American government began a new phase of Indian policy. It developed new forms of influence upon America’s Indian communities and increasingly targeted American Indian reservation communities in a campaign designed to refashion the nature of Indian social, political, and economic relations. As the Indian Wars of the American West came to an end, Indian people found themselves subjected to attacks of a different kind. For some fifty years between roughly 1880 and 1930, influential groups in American society— Protestant and Catholic churches, educators, and other self-professed social reformers, and particularly policymakers in Washington—combined in a sus- tained effort to assimilate Indian peoples in the image of white Americans.
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