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through the forests down rudimentary roads, to continue the advance. On the same day Burgoyne received word that the Americans had captured one of his supply flotillas on Lake George. He was tempted to abandon the whole enterprise and withdraw to Fort Ticonderoga, but information that Major General Clinton was advancing to meet him up the Hudson River from New York caused him to remain in his camp. By 7th October 1777, in spite of considerable success in the southern reaches, Clinton had not make any real progress up the Hudson River. Burgoyne determined to launch the delayed attack on the American positions on Bemis Heights. By was galvanized.
Appendix CHIS/115 Version 311this time Gates had been considerably reinforced and had some 12,000 men against around 4,000 British and Germans. Burgoyne described the operation as a reconnaissance in strength, designed to see if he could occupy the hill to the West of the American fortifications. The American piquet’s sent word that the British had advanced and were forming up in a wheat field near the old Freeman’s Farm battlefield. Morgan’s riflemen were committed to the attack, quickly supported by the other regiments of Arnold’s division. The Americans far outnumbered the British “reconnaissance” party and the British Grenadiers and Light Companies were pressed back. At a critical moment in the fighting Brigadier Simon Fraser was mortally wounded by one of Morgan’s riflemen. Arnold spurred the Americans to continue the attack and was himself severely wounded. The British and Hessian troops began to give way and after the redoubt held by Colonel Breymann and his regiment was taken, Burgoyne withdrew his force to his fortified camp above the Hudson River. The next day Burgoyne withdrew his army up the river to the camp they had built at Saratoga. The American army pursued Burgoyne and enveloped the British positions. Burgoyne let the last opportunities to retreat north to Ticonderoga go by, hoping that Clinton’s army would come up the Hudson River from the South to his relief. A major difficulty in the campaign was communications between the two British forces. Almost all the messengers attempting to carry messages were caught and hanged by the Americans. Burgoyne awaited news of Clinton’s advance until 17th October 1777, when he was forced to sign the convention by which his troops surrendered to Gates, who had by then between 18,000 and 20,000 men.The Battle of Saratoga 1777. (2012). Retrieved from
Appendix CHIS/115 Version 312Valley ForgeAccording to "American Revolution: Winter at Valley Forge" (n.d), “For his winter encampment, Washington selected Valley Forge on the Schuylkill River approximately 20 miles northwest of Philadelphia. With its high ground and position near the river, Valley Forge was easily defensible, but still close enough to the city for Washington to maintain pressure on the British. Despite the defeats of the fall, the 12,000 men of the Continental Army were in good spirits when they marched into Valley Forge on December 19, 1777. Under the direction of the army's engineers,