17. The difference between a dialect and a language depends on mutual intelligibility. If you are able to understand one another, then it is a dialect. If you are unable to, then it is a different language. 18. An inflectional morpheme is a suffix and can never change the grammatical category of a word, whereas a derivational morpheme can, such as the morpheme -ly, which can change an adjective to and adverb. 19. A word is a meaningful unit which can be used as a singular phrase or in a sentence, We can tell when it’s a word when it is the minimal possible unit in a reply. It can have features such as a
regular stress pattern, and phonological changes conditioned by or blocked at word boundaries. It can be the largest unit resistant to insertion of new constituents within its boundaries, or be the smallest constituent that can be moved within a sentence without making the sentence ungrammatical. 20. Bee communication is a sophisticated sign but it not a symbol, a symbol being removed in time and space, arbitrary, and conventional. Bees have closed communication, meaning that they cannot talk about anything but that day’s nectar, cannot relay messages cannot reply or ask questions about the nectar. Whereas humans have an infinite amount of possibilities in expounding on conversations and relaying information. We can also produce novel expressions and are capable of syntax. 21. Apes can only grasp simple syntax, they were able to do some generalizing, and they were able to produce some novel expressions such as “water bird”. They are unable to vocalize so they were taught ASL, or they used computer keyboard and chips. 22. Displacement: removed in time/space (bees can talk about nectar in other locations but not in space), openness/productivity: infinity of novel expressions, cultural transmission: social learning, not innate, duality of patterning: sounds combine to make words. Words can then be combined to make new words. 23. Behaviorist theory- A child is an empty vessel that is to be filled by experiences provided by the environment they are put in. Innatist theory- Language is innate and is genetically encoded into humans. This ability is realized with relatively minimal assistance. Cognitivist theory- Cognition comes first then language develops. Theory theory- Children build rules as they learn.
- Fall '17
- Dr. Doug Falen
- Anthropology, Phoneme, Morpheme