Cladogram linear tree with the least amount of

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Cladogram – linear tree with the least amount of changes determined by clustering synamorphies (phenogenetically) Branch, Node (speciation event), Internode (ancestral species), Root (common ancestor) Takeaways - there are different ways we can characterize differences between species – morphological, chemical, genetic - taxonomic hierarchies provide a way to understand differences between species now and through time - binomial nomenclature provides a systematic way to identify species - the hierarchy of life is continually changing - we can use indirect evidence to reconstruct phylogenetic trees Terms: taxonomic hierarchy, systematics, phyogenies, phylogenetic tree, character, taxa, chemotaxonomy, cytotaxonomy, cladogram, phylogenetic species concept, biological species concept, evolutionary species concept, homolgous structure, analogous structure, convergent evolution, divergent evolution, synamorphy, clade
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Concepts - differences between the three species concepts - defining a species - differentiatie between genus and species - the major taxonomic hierarchies - how to construct a phylogenetic tree or cladogram and what information it provides - how is a cladogram constructed from characteristics or how can they be found from a cladogram. LECTURE 5 – Ecological Hierarchies Taxonomic hierarchy describes how to divide and rank life based on morphology and evolutionary relationships of organisms BUT not much demonstration of how species interact with other organisms, or how they are affected by the environment Ecologists, biogeographers – tend to focus on studies on examining specific geographical an taxonomic scales the way that ecological hierarchies are constructed try to reflect these scales 1. Individual Organism 2. Population a. All the individuals of a given species is a prescribed area i. Members are assumed to be able to interact an interbreed frequently b. Defining scales critical Metapopulations - When members of a species are in different locations and interactions between the separated populations are happening relatively frequently or extremely infrequently Loose metapopulations - subpopulations of a species that interact with each other very infrequently - distance significant – may be greater than distance individual travels in a life span Tight metapopulations - distance small enough for individuals to travel between them and have more frequent interactions 3. Community - An ecological community - All populations of organisms in a prescribed area Ways to change the filter on the ‘lens’ – subsets of a community - Autoecology: research focusing on one species - Synecology: interactions between species in communities - Phytogeographers: might restrict a study to flowering plant species only - Assemblages : subsets of a community eg flowering plant species Guilds - An important subset of a community, groups of animals - Similar forms, habitat and resource requirements eg. Bird guilds of insect and seed- eating species 4. Ecosystem
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- Interaction between species of the community and abiotic factors (the physical
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