Archaeology Study Guide Exam 2 .docx

Andean aztecs and mayans both diifrent states aztecs

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Andean Aztecs and Mayans- both diifrent states *Aztecs- had one central hierarchy, despotic rule Name of group encountered by Spanish in AD 1519 Had extended political and military control over Valley of Mexico Montezuma leader of the Aztecs Mayans New World States –Case Study Lowland Maya *Mayans- competing smaller factions, collective rule Whereas Valley of Mexico is typically dominated by one major center through time Maya region characterized by series of competing city states Much more rural Each with single ritual center, much smaller than Valley of Mexico cities Who Are the Maya and Aztecs? Valley of Mexico Shortly after founding of Monte Alban was founding of Teotihuacan , ca 2100 BP At its peak 1700-1400 BP Becomes largest urban center in the Americas May have had 200,000 people population at peak Rise of Inegalitarian societies in the Andes Desert coast? Moche iconography Moche Known through burial of Sipan, a warrior priest- wearing the costume of a semi divine figure like the artwork Inside mudbrick temple Surrounded by gold and ornaments Also 3 young women, 2 men Clear wealth differences! -show the rise of inegaliatrism -state, distinct, leaders First monumental architecture in various places in the world First public architecture Göbekli Tepe, 11,500 BP First pyramid is Step Pyramid, based on mastabas Who are the Inca The Inca (AD 1476-) Empire that conquered Andes, largest New World Empire Integrated regions and economic specialists The Inca (AD 1476-) Built extensive road network Largest in New World, Best engineered anywhere until automobile State maintained systems of runners for communication The Inca (AD 1476-)
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Food storage important Freeze-dried potato Jerkey Chicha – maize beer -had runners to spread messages The Inca (AD 1476-) Quipu Knotted strings that were used for record keeping, writing What imperial strategies did the Inca use Forced Settlement-Cusco- schools were conquered children learned to be Incas, kept as hostages, sent back as adults moved people around- keep them from building alliances and revolting, moved to a new place and new way of life What is Robert Carnerios theory of the state? How does it apply in Oaxaca? *Story of the Oaxacan State Social inequality appears around 2900 BP at San Jose Magote (large center, wealthy burials) Three competing chiefdoms by 2600 BP By 2500 BP, one wins, and founds Monte Alban as center, forms a state By 2100 BP Monte Alban has become an empire The model of Population Growth, Warfare, Circumscription fits very well * Robert Carneiro argued that the way states arose was through environmental or social circumscription and warfare Circumscription-limits or boundraries 1. Increasing population leads to 2. Circumscription (social or environmental) which leads to 3. Warfare to deal with declining access to resources which leads to 4. One side being victorious which leads to 5. The institution of a state to deal with the administration of tributary members
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