Mass production the making of goods in factories in

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mass production : The making of goods in factories in large amounts through the use of developments such as inanimate power, continually operating machinery, large labor forces, interchangeable parts, and assembly lines. Mass Transit : This is a name for transportation systems designed to move large numbers of people usually within an urban environment. Developing gradually during the 19th century, the methods of transport often began with
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horse-drawn omnibuses (often running on rails) before the Civil War and graduated to trolley cars (Frank W. Sprague) to cable cars to elevated trains to subways. These systems allowed the middle and upper classes to establish residential areas on the edge of cities, and therefore they had the effect of dividing cities into zones (residential, commercial, industrial) and sorting people into classes. The so-called “walking cities” of pre-industrial America had been small with mixed populations and neighborhoods and little zoning. Mass transit re-enforced the social effects of factory employment and the cash nexus--employers and employees no longer worked together, no longer lived in the same area, no longer knew each other, no longer felt any personal responsibility for each other. Mass transit also allowed cities to become characterized by urban sprawl as cities often spread with little planning other than what was profitable for the developer. Miners' Frontier : This refers to the locales and activity involving miners and others who moved into the Sierra Nevada, Rocky, and western ridge mountains in search of wealth either by finding gold, silver, and other valuable metals or by profiting from provisioning and serving the miners. These people became some of the first to settle in the trans-Mississippi West in the mid and late 19th century. Ironically, the miners, while often staking claims in isolated areas, formed mining camps and towns so that the Miners’ Frontier was at least partly an urban or semi-urban phenomenon in the midst of vast stretches of unpopulated territory. The Miners’ Frontier also exemplified two of the more unfortunate characteristics of untrammeled individualism— exploitation and violence. The miners exploited the land and other people with little consideration of the long-term effects, and they engaged in violence partly because they were removed from any legal authority and had to rely on themselves, vigilante committees, or hired “guns” to enforce their extralegal arrangements. This frontier also represents how violence in the West was romanticized and idealized by authors such as Ned Buntline who helped create the idea of a Wild West. The results of this frontier included the admission of areas as states and territories before most of the land in the area was inhabited, the production of gold and silver which helped fund the Civil War and industrialization, and an increase in clashes with the Native Americans.
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