Of trips covered by the bus to satisfy the demand and

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of trips covered by the bus to satisfy the demand and the trip time are obtained from the simulation model. The operating cost, the waiting time cost and the total cost are computed and tabulated in Table 5.4. The objective of
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g3 114 the problem is to determine the optimal (best) headway so as to minimize the total cost. Figure 5.7 shows the graphical representation of the costs versus headway. From the graph, it is observed that the operating cost decreases as headway increases. And the waiting time cost increases as the headway increases. The trade off between the waiting time cost of the passengers and operating cost is found at headway of 10 minutes (Table 5.4). Also the average waiting time of the passengers is 12.2 minutes, the number of trips required is 96 and the total cost is INR 62792. Thus the optimal (best) headway is found to be 10 minutes. With this headway, starting from 5.00 AM, the timetable has been prepared and shown in Table 5.5. In this case, it is to be noted that the headway is the same for all the time periods. Figure 5.7 Headway versus Total cost
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g3 115 Table 5.5 Sample Timetable for the single route Terminus Stage1 Stage2 Stage3 Stage 4 Stage 5 Terminus2 5:10 AM 5:25 AM 5:36 AM 5:55 AM 6:03 AM 6:08 AM 6:11 AM 5:20 AM 5:36 AM 5:47 AM 6:06 AM 6:14 AM 6:19 AM 6:21 AM 5:30 AM 5:45 AM 5:56 AM 6:15 AM 6:24 AM 6:30 AM 6:33 AM 5:40 AM 5:55 AM 6:06 AM 6:25 AM 6:34 AM 6:40 AM 6:43 AM 5:50 AM 6:06 AM 6:17 AM 6:36 AM 6:44 AM 6:50 AM 6:53 AM 6:00 AM 6:16 AM 6:27 AM 6:46 AM 6:55 AM 7:01 AM 7:07 AM 6:10 AM 6:26 AM 6:36 AM 6:55 AM 7:05 AM 7:16 AM 7:23 AM 6:20 AM 6:36 AM 6:47 AM 7:06 AM 7:19 AM 7:29 AM 7:32 AM 6:30 AM 6:45 AM 6:56 AM 7:15 AM 7:29 AM 7:40 AM 7:44 AM 6:40 AM 6:56 AM 7:08 AM 7:32 AM 7:44 AM 7:57 AM 8:01 AM 6:50 AM 7:07 AM 7:23 AM 7:47 AM 8:01 AM 8:16 AM 8:22 AM 5.9 CASE 2: SINGLE BUS ROUTE (MULTIPLE HEADWAYS) In case1, the headway is considered as the same for all the three time periods. However, in practice it is essential to have different headway for different time periods in order to meet the changing traffic demand during peak and slack periods. Usually, in a real situation, the passenger demand is lean during below normal time period, during the peak hours the demand will be high and during the normal time period the demand would be medium. Accordingly, it is required to operate the buses with different headway to meet the change in demand. This is termed multiple headway. However, the headway is constant during a given time period. The simulation model developed for case 1 has been slightly modified for the multiple headway case. The stage sub-model and travelling time sub-model remain the same as in case 1. But there is slight change in the terminus sub-model which is shown in Figure 5.8, where bus despatch will be different for different time periods (headway is more for below normal period,
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g3 116 for the normal period it is slightly reduced and for the peak period the headway is further reduced). The working of the model for bus despatch is explained through the following algorithm.
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  • Summer '16
  • Bus stop, simulation model

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