Exclusionary/negative – avoiding sectors e.g. gambling, tobacco, alcohol, fossil
Positive/Best-in-class – positive ESG< sustainability performance
Norms-Based – minimum standards
Sustainability themed – clean energy, green tech, sustainability, agriculture, green
Impact/Community Investing – targeted investments aimed at solving social and
Corporate advocacy and shareholder action – shareholder power to directly influence
corporate behaviour (corporate engagement, proposals, proxy voting)
Sustainability and Climate Change
Sustainable investing represents a significant amount of global economy.
Stakeholders are demanding tat organizations consider and implement sustainable-
If we go back to what this means for all of you, working in organisations
In 2014, around 80% of global fuel demands met by fossil fuel
In 2014, around 1.3billion people were without electricity
Its estimated that emissions need to be lowered by 35%-70% by 2050.
These shifts will in turn, demand substantial societal (and in turn infrastructure) shifts.
Several bodies that attempt to bring together, standardize and evaluating reporting
Global Reporting Initiative
The GRI – economic, environmental and social sustainability
Comprehensive sustainability reporting framework that is widely used around the
Sets global standards
Considers economic, environmental and social.
Critiques and Problems with Reporting
Milne and Gray (2013) discuss “the modern disconnect between the practice of
sustainability reporting and what we consider to be the urgent issue of our era:
sustaining the life-supporting ecological systems on which humanity and other species
depend.” (p. 13)
Reporting is something that happens ‘at the end’ – so what can organizations do now?
How should they act?
Triple Bottom Line
The single bottom line: Profit/Loss
The triple bottom line:
Part of this broader societal shift and demand towards organisations acting
TBL has become synonymous with corporate sustainability