ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

For example when a persons department is moved to a

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resistance. For example, when a person’s department is moved to a new office on the far side of town, it likely means that he or she will have to change many habits, such as waking up earlier, taking a new route to work, finding a new parking place, adjusting to the new office layout, and so on. Sturctural inertia are the built-in mechanisms to produce stability within an organization. For example, the selection process systematically selects certain people in and certain people out. Training and other socialization techniques reinforce specific role requirements and skills. The people who are hired into an organization are chosen for fit, and then they are shaped and directed to behave in certain ways. When an organization is confronted with change, structural inertia acts as a counterbalance to sustain stability Even if individuals want to change their behavior, group norms may act as a constraint. An individual union member, for instance, may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. But if union norms dictate resisting any unilateral change made by management, he’s likely to resist. Resistance can be reduced through educating and communicating with employees to help them see the logic of a change. This tactic basically assumes the source of resistance lies in misinformation or poor communication. If employees receive the full facts and get any misunderstandings cleared up, it is believed that resistance will subside. Communication can be achieved through one-on-one discussions, memos, group presentations, or reports
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Manipulation refers to covert influence attempts to persuade people to change. Twisting and distorting facts to make them appear more attractive, withholding undesirable information, and creating false rumors to get employees to accept a change are all examples of manipulation. For example, if corporate management threatens to close down a particular manufacturing plant if that plant’s employees fail to accept a pay cut, and if the threat is actually untrue, management is using manipulation. Cooptation is a persuasion tactic that is a form of both manipulation and participation. This tactic seeks to buy off the leaders of a resistance group by giving them a key role in the change decision. The leaders’ advice is sought, not to seek a better decision, but to get their endorsement. Both manipulation and cooptation are relatively inexpensive and easy ways to gain the support of adversaries, but the tactics can backfire if the targets become aware they are being tricked or used. Once discovered, the change agent’s credibility may drop to zero. Kurt Lewin argued in his Three-step change model that successful change in organizations should follow three steps: unfreezing the status quo, movement to a new state, and refreezing the new change to make it permanent. The status quo can be considered to be an equilibrium state. To move from this equilibrium—to overcome the pressures of both individual resistance and group conformity—unfreezing is necessary. Once the consolidation change has been implemented, if it is to be successful, the new situation needs to be refrozen so that it can be sustained over time. The
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